Formic acid

formicformateHCO 2 HHCOOHE236F'''ormicform'''ic''' acidformatesformic acid (HCOOH)Hydrozine
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH.wikipedia
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Carboxylic acid

carboxylcarboxyl groupcarboxylic acids
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH.

Formate

caesium formateFormiateCOOH
The chemical composition is HCOOH. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates.
Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid.
Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid).

Formica

field antServiformicawood ants
The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies.
Wood ants typically secrete formic acid; ''F.

Stingless bee

Meliponinistingless beesstingless
In nature, formic acid is found in most ants and in stingless bees of the genus Oxytrigona.
In addition, a few (in the genus Oxytrigona) have mandibular secretions, including formic acid, that cause painful blisters.

Methanol

methyl alcoholwood alcoholCH 3 OH
Industrially, formic acid is produced from methanol. When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation: Nonetheless, it has specific toxic effects; the formic acid and formaldehyde produced as metabolites of methanol are responsible for the optic nerve damage, causing blindness, seen in methanol poisoning.
Second, in a process of toxication, it is metabolized to formic acid (which is present as the formate ion) via formaldehyde in a process initiated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver.

Methyl formate

When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation:
Methyl formate, also called methyl methanoate, is the methyl ester of formic acid.

Formamide

formamidesmethanamide
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.

Ant

Formicidaeantsformicid
In nature, formic acid is found in most ants and in stingless bees of the genus Oxytrigona.
Ants attack and defend themselves by biting and, in many species, by stinging, often injecting or spraying chemicals, such as formic acid in the case of formicine ants, alkaloids and piperidines in fire ants, and a variety of protein components in other ants.

OxFA process

Formic acid can also be obtained by aqueous catalytic partial oxidation of wet biomass by the OxFA process.
The OxFA process is a process to produce formic acid from biomass by catalytic oxidation using molecular oxygen or air.

Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
It is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, and is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons.

Feicheng Acid Chemicals

, the largest producers are BASF, Eastman Chemical Company, LC Industrial, and Feicheng Acid Chemicals, with the largest production facilities in Ludwigshafen (200,000 tonnes per year, BASF, Germany), Oulu (105,000, Eastman, Finland), Nakhon Pathom (n/a, LC Industrial), and Feicheng (100,000, Feicheng, China).
It is the largest producer of formic acid (100,000 metric tonnes per annum) outside Europe, owning over 10% of the world production capacity.

Hydrogenation

hydrogenatedcatalytic hydrogenationhydrogenated vegetable oil
The catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 to formic acid has long been studied.
These reactants, which can also serve as solvents for the reaction, include hydrazine, dihydronaphthalene, dihydroanthracene, isopropanol, and formic acid.

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning
When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation:
If the hydrogen partial pressure is high enough (for instance in an underground sea), formic acid will be formed:

Hydrogen bond

hydrogen bondinghydrogen bondshydrogen-bonding
In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules.
It is seen in ice at high pressure, and also in the solid phase of many anhydrous acids such as hydrofluoric acid and formic acid at high pressure.

Formic acid fuel cell

Direct formic acid fuel cellformic acid fuel cells
Formic acid can be used as a fuel cell (it can be used directly in formic acid fuel cells and indirectly in hydrogen fuel cells).
Formic acid fuel cells (direct formic acid fuel cells or DFAFCs) are a subcategory of proton exchange membrane fuel cells where the fuel, formic acid, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to feed to kill E. coli bacteria.
Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration, using a large variety of redox pairs, including the oxidation of pyruvic acid, formic acid, hydrogen, and amino acids, and the reduction of substrates such as oxygen, nitrate, fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and trimethylamine N-oxide.

Aldehyde

aldehydesformylformyl group
Formic acid is a source for a formyl group for example in the formylation of methylaniline to N-methylformanilide in toluene.
This word can be recognized in the simplest aldehyde, formaldehyde (structure shown at top of article), and in the simplest carboxylic acid, formic acid (structure shown at right).

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates.
The carbonylation of methanol yields methyl formate, which is the main commercial source of formic acid.

Eschweiler–Clarke reaction

Eschweiler-Clarke reactionEschweiler-ClarkeEschweiler–Clarke
The Eschweiler-Clarke reaction and the Leuckart-Wallach reaction are examples of this application.
The Eschweiler–Clarke reaction (also called the Eschweiler–Clarke methylation) is a chemical reaction whereby a primary (or secondary) amine is methylated using excess formic acid and formaldehyde.

Formaldehyde

formalinH 2 COmethanal
Nonetheless, it has specific toxic effects; the formic acid and formaldehyde produced as metabolites of methanol are responsible for the optic nerve damage, causing blindness, seen in methanol poisoning.
The common name of this substance comes from its similarity and relation to formic acid.

Allyl alcohol

allylic alcoholAllylic alcoholsalcohol
If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results.
In the laboratory, it has been prepared by the reaction of glycerol with oxalic or formic acids.

Formic anhydride

formic acid anhydride
An unstable formic anhydride, H(C=O)−O−(C=O)H, can be obtained by dehydration of formic acid with N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in ether at low temperature.
Formic anhydride, also called methanoic anhydride, is an organic compound with the chemical formula and a structural formula of (H(C=O)−) 2 O. It can be viewed as the anhydride of formic acid (HCOOH).

Methanol toxicity

methanol poisoningmethanolpoisonous
Nonetheless, it has specific toxic effects; the formic acid and formaldehyde produced as metabolites of methanol are responsible for the optic nerve damage, causing blindness, seen in methanol poisoning.
When methanol is broken down by the body it results in formaldehyde, formic acid, and formate which cause much of the toxicity.

Koch reaction

In the presence of certain acids, including sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, however, a variant of the Koch reaction occurs instead, and formic acid adds to the alkene to produce a larger carboxylic acid.
Formic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon monoxide in the presence of acids or relatively low heat, is often used instead of carbon monoxide directly; this procedure was developed shortly after the Koch reaction and is more commonly referred to as the Koch–Haaf reaction.