Fort Beauséjour

Fort CumberlandFort BeausejourFort Beauséjour – Fort Cumberland National Historic SiteBeausejourBeauséjourFort Beauséjour – Fort CumberlandFort Cumberland, Nova ScotiaFt. Cumberlandremaining scattered Acadians
Fort Beauséjour is a large five-bastioned star fort on the Isthmus of Chignecto, a neck of land connecting present-day New Brunswick with Nova Scotia, Canada.wikipedia
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New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Fort Beauséjour is a large five-bastioned star fort on the Isthmus of Chignecto, a neck of land connecting present-day New Brunswick with Nova Scotia, Canada.
In an effort to limit British expansion into continental Acadia, the French built Fort Beauséjour at the isthmus in 1751.

Battle of Fort Cumberland

Eddy RebellionFort CumberlandSiege of Fort Cumberland
The fort played an important role in the Anglo-French rivalry of 1749-63 and in the 1776 Battle of Fort Cumberland when sympathisers of the American Revolution were repulsed. In 1776, early in the American Revolutionary War, Fort Cumberland and its garrison of the Royal Fencible American Regiment repelled several rebel attacks in the Battle of Fort Cumberland from local guerrillas led by the American sympathizer Jonathan Eddy.
With minimal logistical support from Massachusetts and four to five hundred volunteer militia and Natives, Eddy attempted to besiege and storm Fort Cumberland in central Nova Scotia (near the present-day border between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) in November 1776.

Battle of Fort Beauséjour

Battle of BeausejourBattle of Fort Beausejourcaptured Fort Beauséjour
It was surrendered to the British in 1755 after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour and renamed Fort Cumberland.
Beginning June 3, 1755, a British army under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton staged out of nearby Fort Lawrence, besieged the small French garrison at Fort Beauséjour with the goal of opening the Isthmus of Chignecto to British control.

Isthmus of Chignecto

ChignectoChignecto IsthmusRaid on Chignecto
Fort Beauséjour is a large five-bastioned star fort on the Isthmus of Chignecto, a neck of land connecting present-day New Brunswick with Nova Scotia, Canada.
French military forces established Fort Beauséjour on the Aulac Ridge in 1749 in response to the British construction of an outpost called Fort Lawrence on the ridge immediately to the east.

The Maritimes

MaritimesMaritime ProvincesCanadian Maritimes
The site was strategically important in Acadia, a French colony that included parts of what is now Quebec, The Maritimes, and northern Maine.
The largest military action in the Maritimes during the revolutionary war was the attack on Fort Cumberland (the renamed Fort Beausejour) in 1776 by a force of American sympathizers led by Jonathan Eddy.

New France

FrenchCanadaNouvelle-France
The threat of Anglo-American invasion of New France was constant, and Acadia was particularly vulnerable.
While the British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710, the French continued to remain a significant force in the region with Fort Beausejour and Fortress Louisbourg.

Robert Monckton

MoncktonGeneral MoncktonHon. Robert Monckton
Pichon provided accounts of French activities, plans of forts and an outline of the steps necessary for capture, which Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton later used in the attacks.
Monckton is also remembered for his role in a number of other important events in the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War), most notably the capture of Fort Beausejour in Acadia, and the island of Martinique in the West Indies, as well as for his role in the deportation of the Acadians from British controlled Nova Scotia and also from French-controlled Acadia (present-day New Brunswick).

Expulsion of the Acadians

Great UpheavalGreat ExpulsionAcadian Expulsion
Some Acadians reported that they had been coerced into assisting in the defense of Fort Beauséjour, and the British used this as a reason to begin the Expulsion of the Acadians. *Jeremiah Bancroft kept a diary in which he gives an account of the fall of Fort Beausejour and the Expulsion of the Acadians at Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia.
During the same period, some also participated in various military operations against the British, and maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort Beauséjour.

Edward Cornwallis

EdwardCornwallisGeneral Cornwallis
In April of that year Governor Edward Cornwallis sent British Major Charles Lawrence with a small force to establish British authority in the isthmus of Chignecto.
The French erected forts at present day Saint John, Chignecto (Fort Beauséjour), and Port Elgin, New Brunswick.

Fort Gaspareaux

Fort Moncton - oldest British military gravestones in regionFort GaspereauFort Monckton
In November 1750 Governor General de la Jonquière ordered that two forts be built at either end of the Isthmus of Chignecto to block the British, one being Fort Gaspareaux on the Northumberland Strait and the other Fort Beauséjour on the Bay of Fundy.
To protect this vital gateway, at the beginning of 1749, the French strategically constructed three forts within 18 months along the route: one at Baie Verte (Fort Gaspareaux), one at Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) and another at the mouth of the Saint John River (Fort Menagoueche).

Fort Sackville (Nova Scotia)

Fort Sackville
As tensions escalated, in 1749 British fortifications were erected in Nova Scotia at Citadel Hill, Halifax, and Fort Sackville, Bedford, while the French rebuilt the Fortress of Louisbourg, and re-occupied Fort Nerepis.
A few days later, the same partisans also raided Fort Cumberland.

Beaubassin

ChignectoChignecto settlement
The de facto border became the Isthmus of Chignecto at the Missiguash River, site of the prosperous Acadian settlement Beaubassin.
In May 1750, the British dispatched Major Charles Lawrence, along with 800 troops, to seize control of the Isthmus of Chignecto and construct a fort near the French post of Point Beauséjour, future site of Fort Beauséjour.

Fort Lawrence (Nova Scotia)

Fort LawrenceBeaubassinFort Lawrence NHS
In the autumn of 1750 Lawrence built Fort Lawrence near the site of the ruined village of Beaubassin.
After Le Loutre's militia retreated, Lawrence began to build Fort Lawrence, a palisade fort on a ridge immediately east of the Missaguash River, the disputed border between Acadia and Nova Scotia since the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, and within sight of Fort Beausejour.

Jean-Louis Le Loutre

Abbe Le LoutreAbbe LeLoutreFather Le Loutre
However, Lawrence was eventually sent to the Missaguash River with a stronger force and routed a group of Indians led by Father Le Loutre, a French agent provocateur.
In the spring of 1751, the French countered by building Fort Beauséjour.

List of French forts in North America

French built a series of fortsFortsFrench settlers were well established

Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière

Marquis de la JonquièreAdmiral de la Jonquièrede la Jonquière
In November 1750 Governor General de la Jonquière ordered that two forts be built at either end of the Isthmus of Chignecto to block the British, one being Fort Gaspareaux on the Northumberland Strait and the other Fort Beauséjour on the Bay of Fundy.

Fort Edward (Nova Scotia)

Fort EdwardFort Edward National Historic SiteFort Edward, Nova Scotia
Fort Cumberland became one of the sites in which the British imprisoned or temporarily held Acadians during the nine years of the expulsion, the others being Fort Edward (Nova Scotia); Fort Frederick, Saint John, New Brunswick, and Fort Charlotte, Georges Island, Halifax.
Fort Edward was one of four forts in which Acadians were imprisoned over the nine years of the expulsion (the others were Fort Frederick, Saint John, New Brunswick; Fort Cumberland; and Fort Charlotte, Georges Island, Halifax).

Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor

In 1754, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor became the commander of Fort Beausejour.
In 1754, Vergor was named as commander of Fort Beauséjour in what would become New Brunswick.

Military history of Nova Scotia

Military history of Nova Scotia - War of 1812American Revolution - Nova Scotia theatreInvasion of Martinique (1809)
A few days later, the same partisans also raided Fort Cumberland.

Jeremiah Bancroft

*Jeremiah Bancroft kept a diary in which he gives an account of the fall of Fort Beausejour and the Expulsion of the Acadians at Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia.
Bancroft is best known for the diary he kept of his account of the fall of Fort Beausejour and the Expulsion of the Acadians at Grand-Pré.

Jonathan Eddy

In 1776, early in the American Revolutionary War, Fort Cumberland and its garrison of the Royal Fencible American Regiment repelled several rebel attacks in the Battle of Fort Cumberland from local guerrillas led by the American sympathizer Jonathan Eddy.
He received a militia captain's commission in 1758, when he apparently saw no action, and again in 1759, when his company was garrisoned at Fort Cumberland (the name Fort Beauséjour was given after its capture).

Royal Fencible American Regiment

Royal Fencible Americans
In 1776, early in the American Revolutionary War, Fort Cumberland and its garrison of the Royal Fencible American Regiment repelled several rebel attacks in the Battle of Fort Cumberland from local guerrillas led by the American sympathizer Jonathan Eddy.
Fort Cumberland (originally built by the French as Fort Beauséjour in 1750) was in an advanced state of disrepair by 1776.

Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia

Grand-PréGrand PréGrand Pre
*Jeremiah Bancroft kept a diary in which he gives an account of the fall of Fort Beausejour and the Expulsion of the Acadians at Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia.
Regular cattle droves made their way over a road from Cobequid to Tatamagouche for the supply of Fort Beauséjour, Louisbourg, and settlements on Île St. Jean (Prince Edward Island).

Georges Island (Nova Scotia)

Georges IslandGeorge's IslandFort Charlotte
Fort Cumberland became one of the sites in which the British imprisoned or temporarily held Acadians during the nine years of the expulsion, the others being Fort Edward (Nova Scotia); Fort Frederick, Saint John, New Brunswick, and Fort Charlotte, Georges Island, Halifax.
During the war, Fort Charlotte was one of four forts where Acadians were imprisoned over the nine years of the Expulsion of the Acadians (the others were Fort Frederick, Saint John, New Brunswick; Fort Cumberland and Fort Edward).

Aulac, New Brunswick

AulacAulac River, New BrunswickLe Lac (Aulac)
During Father Le Loutre's War, British military forces constructed a log stockade on the Fort Lawrence Ridge, 3 km to the south of Aulac, naming their facility Fort Lawrence, which was promptly answered by the French construction of Fort Beauséjour at the western end of the Aulac Ridge, overlooking the Cumberland Basin of the Bay of Fundy.