Fossil fuel

fossil fuelsoil and gasOil & Gasfossil-fuelfossil energyhydrocarbon fuelfossilfossil fuel industrymineral fuelmineral fuels
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.wikipedia
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Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure.

Coal

coal seamcoal industrycoal-fired
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
As a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios (like methane), to liquids (like petroleum), to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal.
Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.

Nuclear power

nuclear energynuclearnuclear industry
Non-fossil sources included nuclear (8.5%), hydroelectric (6.3%), and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%. Different alternative sources of energy include nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, wind, and geothermal.
Since its commercialization in the 1970s, nuclear power has prevented about 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and the emission of about 64 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent that would have otherwise resulted from the burning of fossil fuels.

Non-renewable resource

non-renewable resourcesnon-renewablenon-renewable energy
Although natural processes continually form fossil fuels, such fuels are generally classified as non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form and the known viable reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made.
Earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are always conserved (except in nuclear reactions).

Solar energy

solarsolar-poweredsolar powered
Non-fossil sources included nuclear (8.5%), hydroelectric (6.3%), and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%. Different alternative sources of energy include nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, wind, and geothermal.
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating global warming, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios (like methane), to liquids (like petroleum), to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal.
Coal is very rich in carbon (anthracite contains 92–98%) and is the largest commercial source of mineral carbon, accounting for 4,000 gigatonnes or 80% of fossil fuel.

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel type
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust.

Primary energy

TPEStotal primary energy supplyprimary
the world's primary energy sources consisted of petroleum (34%), coal (28%), natural gas (23%), amounting to an 85% share for fossil fuels in primary energy-consumption in the world.

Renewable energy

renewablesrenewable energiesrenewable
A global movement towards the generation of low-carbon renewable energy is underway to help reduce global greenhouse-gas emissions.
Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to fossil fuels, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries.

Tidal power

tidal energytidaltides
Non-fossil sources included nuclear (8.5%), hydroelectric (6.3%), and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%.
Other natural energies exploited by human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, including fossil fuel, conventional hydroelectric, wind, biofuel, wave and solar energy.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming.
The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, with additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion and agriculture (including livestock).

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) per year.
It is produced by combustion of wood and other organic materials and fossil fuels such as coal, peat, petroleum and natural gas.

World energy consumption

energyWorld energy resources and consumptionenergy demand
the world's primary energy sources consisted of petroleum (34%), coal (28%), natural gas (23%), amounting to an 85% share for fossil fuels in primary energy-consumption in the world.
In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO 2 emissions.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios (like methane), to liquids (like petroleum), to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal.
Compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, methane produces less carbon dioxide for each unit of heat released.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming.
Of these emissions, 65% was carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning and industry, 11% was carbon dioxide from land use change, which is primarily due to deforestation, 16% was from methane, 6.2% was from nitrous oxide, and 2.0% was from fluorinated gases.

Wood fuel

woodfirewoodfuelwood
Non-fossil sources included nuclear (8.5%), hydroelectric (6.3%), and others (geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, waste) amounting to 0.9%.
A brief resurgence in popularity occurred during and after the 1973 energy crisis, when some believed that fossil fuels would become so expensive as to preclude their use.

Sedimentary rock

sedimentarysedimentary rockssediments
Oil shale and similar materials are sedimentary rocks containing kerogen, a complex mixture of high-molecular weight organic compounds, which yield synthetic crude oil when heated (pyrolyzed).
Sedimentary rocks are also important sources of natural resources like coal, fossil fuels, drinking water or ores.

Car

automobileautomobilescars
The invention of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles and trucks greatly increased the demand for gasoline and diesel oil, both made from fossil fuels.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels.

Gas lighting

gas lampgaslightgas light
At the same time, gas lights using natural gas or coal gas were coming into wide use.
Gas lighting now is generally used for camping, where the high energy density of a hydrocarbon fuel, combined with the modular nature of canisters (a strong metal container) allows bright and long lasting light to be produced cheaply and without complex equipment.

Natural gas

gasgas-firednatural-gas
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel.

Peat

turfpeat cuttingpeat extraction
Prior to the latter half of the 18th century, windmills and watermills provided the energy needed for industry such as milling flour, sawing wood or pumping water, and burning wood or peat provided domestic heat.
Over time, the formation of peat is often the first step in the geological formation of other fossil fuels such as coal, particularly low-grade coal such as lignite.

Internal combustion engine

engineinternal combustioninternal combustion engines
The invention of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles and trucks greatly increased the demand for gasoline and diesel oil, both made from fossil fuels.
ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels.

Alternative energy

alternativealternative energiesalternative sources of energy
Different alternative sources of energy include nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, wind, and geothermal.
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.

Pyrolysis

pyrolyticpyrolyzedMethane pyrolysis
Oil shale and similar materials are sedimentary rocks containing kerogen, a complex mixture of high-molecular weight organic compounds, which yield synthetic crude oil when heated (pyrolyzed).