Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Reciprocating engine of a car
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Diesel generator for backup power
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
Bare cylinder block of a V8 engine
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Piston, piston ring, gudgeon pin and connecting rod
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
Valve train above a Diesel engine cylinder head. This engine uses rocker arms but no pushrods.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Engine block seen from below. The cylinders, oil spray nozzle and half of the main bearings are clearly visible.
Diagram showing the operation of a 4-stroke SI engine. Labels:
1 ‐ Induction
2 ‐ Compression
3 ‐ Power
4 ‐ Exhaust
Diagram of a crankcase scavenged 2-stroke engine in operation
Diagram of uniflow scavenging
Bosch magneto
Points and coil ignition
Diagram of an engine using pressurized lubrication
P-V diagram for the ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1–4 in clockwise direction.
Turbofan jet engine
Turbine power plant
Brayton cycle
The Wankel rotary cycle. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft.
One-cylinder gasoline engine, c. 1910
Electric starter as used in automobiles

Fossil fuels may be burned to provide heat for use directly (such as for cooking or heating), to power engines (such as internal combustion engines in motor vehicles), or to generate electricity.

- Fossil fuel

ICEs are typically powered by fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil.

- Internal combustion engine
Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot

4 related topics

Alpha

Wood was one of the first fuels used by humans.

Fuel

Any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy or to be used for work.

Any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy or to be used for work.

Wood was one of the first fuels used by humans.
Wood as fuel for combustion
Coal is a solid fuel
A gasoline station
Fuel gauge for gasoline on a 50 ccm scooter, with the typical pictogram of a gas pump
A 20-pound (9.1 kg) propane cylinder
Extraction of petroleum
Two CANDU ("CANada Deuterium Uranium") fuel bundles, each about 50cm long and 10cm in diameter
Nuclear fuel pellets are used to release nuclear energy.

Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust.

High energy density can also be provided by an internal combustion engine.

The flames caused as a result of a fuel undergoing combustion (burning)

Combustion

High-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

High-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

The flames caused as a result of a fuel undergoing combustion (burning)
Air pollution abatement equipment provides combustion control for industrial processes.
The combustion of methane, a hydrocarbon.
Colourized gray-scale composite image of the individual frames from a video of a backlit fuel droplet burning in microgravity.
A general scheme of polymer combustion
Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment related to combustion generated by amplified sun light.

The thermal energy produced from combustion of either fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or from renewable fuels such as firewood, is harvested for diverse uses such as cooking, production of electricity or industrial or domestic heating.

The designs of combustion devices can improve the quality of combustion, such as burners and internal combustion engines.

Fractional distillation apparatus.

Petroleum

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Fractional distillation apparatus.
Oil derrick in Okemah, Oklahoma, 1922.
Shale bings near Broxburn, 3 of a total of 19 in West Lothian.
This wartime propaganda poster promoted carpooling as a way to ration vital gasoline during World War II.
Unconventional resources are much larger than conventional ones.
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. Lines represent single bonds; black spheres represent carbon; white spheres represent hydrogen.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. Treibs noted the close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right).
A hydrocarbon trap consists of a reservoir rock (yellow) where oil (red) can accumulate, and a caprock (green) that prevents it from egressing.
Some marker crudes with their sulfur content (horizontal) and API gravity (vertical) and relative production quantity.
Nominal and inflation-adjusted US dollar price of crude oil, 1861–2015.
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption, gray represents no data) (source: see file description).
Diesel fuel spill on a road.
Seawater acidification.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, from 1800. {{legend|black|Total}}{{legend|blue|Oil}}
Rate of world energy usage per year from 1970.<ref name="BP-Report-2012">BP: Statistical Review of World Energy {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516003736/http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037130&contentId=7068669 |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2012</ref>
Daily oil consumption from 1980 to 2006.
Oil consumption by percentage of total per region from 1980 to 2006: {{legend|red|US}}{{legend|blue|Europe}}{{legend|#D1D117|Asia and Oceania}}.
Oil consumption 1980 to 2007 by region.

A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure.

The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, and the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis of plastics, fertilisers, solvents, adhesives and pesticides.

Cars and trucks driving on a divided highway, Highway401 in Ontario, Canada

Car

Wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

Wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

Cars and trucks driving on a divided highway, Highway401 in Ontario, Canada
Steam Machine Of Verbiest, In 1678. (Ferdinand Verbiest)
Cugnot's 1771 fardier à vapeur, as preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France
Gustave Trouvé's tricycle, the first ever electric automobile to be shown in public
Carl Benz, the inventor of the modern car
The original Benz Patent-Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept
Bertha Benz, the first long distance driver
Émile Levassor
Armand Peugeot
Ransom E. Olds founded Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile) in 1897
Henry Ford founded Ford Motor Company in 1903
1927 Ford Model T
Kiichiro Toyoda, president of the Toyota Motor Corporation 1941–1950
Mass production at a Toyota plant in the 1950s
The Toyota Corolla is the best-selling car of all-time
2011 Nissan Leaf electric car
Low battery and motors can improve safety
In the Ford Model T the left-side hand lever sets the rear wheel parking brakes and puts the transmission in neutral. The lever to the right controls the throttle. The lever on the left of the steering column is for ignition timing. The left foot pedal changes the two forward gears while the centre pedal controls reverse. The right pedal is the brake.
Panel for fuses and circuit breakers
Audi A4 daytime running lights
The Smart Fortwo car from 1998 to 2002, weighing 730 kg
A Chevrolet Suburban extended-length SUV weighs 7200 lb (gross weight)
Result of a serious car collision
Road congestion is an issue in many major cities. (pictured is Chang'an Avenue in Beijing)
Vehicles in use per country from 2001 to 2007. It shows the significant growth in BRIC.
A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car
A car being assembled in a factory
The Vélib' in Paris, France is the largest bikesharing system outside China

Most cars in use in the early 2020s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels.