A report on Fossil fuel and Ocean acidification

Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Estimated change in seawater pH caused by human-created carbon dioxide between the 1700s and the 1990s, from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) and the World Ocean Atlas
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Here is a detailed image of the full carbon cycle
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
NOAA provides evidence for the upwelling of "acidified" water onto the Continental Shelf. In the figure above, note the vertical sections of (A) temperature, (B) aragonite saturation, (C) pH, (D) DIC, and (E) p on transect line 5 off Pt. St. George, California. The potential density surfaces are superimposed on the temperature section. The 26.2 potential density surface delineates the location of the first instance in which the undersaturated water is upwelled from depths of 150 to 200 m onto the shelf and outcropping at the surface near the coast. The red dots represent sample locations.
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Ocean Acidification Infographic
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
The cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Distribution of (A) aragonite and (B) calcite saturation depth in the global oceans
This map shows changes in the aragonite saturation level of ocean surface waters between the 1880s and the most recent decade (2006–2015). Aragonite is a form of calcium carbonate that many marine animals use to build their skeletons and shells. The lower the saturation level, the more difficult it is for organisms to build and maintain their skeletons and shells. A negative change represents a decrease in saturation.
Here is detailed diagram of the carbon cycle within the ocean
Bjerrum plot: Change in carbonate system of seawater from ocean acidification.
Shells of pteropods dissolve in increasingly acidic conditions caused by increased amounts of atmospheric
A normally-protective shell made thin, fragile and transparent by acidification
Drivers of hypoxia and ocean acidification intensification in upwelling shelf systems. Equatorward winds drive the upwelling of low dissolved oxygen (DO), high nutrient, and high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) water from above the oxygen minimum zone. Cross-shelf gradients in productivity and bottom water residence times drive the strength of DO (DIC) decrease (increase) as water transits across a productive continental shelf.
Demonstrator calling for action against ocean acidification at the People's Climate March (2017).
Ocean acidification: mean seawater pH. Mean seawater pH is shown based on in-situ measurements of pH from the Aloha station.
"Present day" (1990s) sea surface pH
Present day alkalinity
"Present day" (1990s) sea surface anthropogenic {{chem|CO|2}}
Vertical inventory of "present day" (1990s) anthropogenic {{chem|CO|2}}
Change in surface {{chem|CO|3|2-}} ion from the 1700s to the 1990s
Present day DIC
Pre-Industrial DIC
A NOAA (AOML) in situ {{chem|CO|2}} concentration sensor (SAMI-CO2), attached to a Coral Reef Early Warning System station, utilized in conducting ocean acidification studies near coral reef areas
A NOAA (PMEL) moored autonomous {{chem|CO|2}} buoy used for measuring {{chem|CO|2}} concentration and ocean acidification studies

The main cause of ocean acidification is human burning of fossil fuels.

- Ocean acidification

Although methane leaks are significant, the burning of fossil fuels is the main source of greenhouse gas emissions causing global warming and ocean acidification.

- Fossil fuel
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons (gigatons) per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. The effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity are not included.

Carbon cycle

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Biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

Biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons (gigatons) per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. The effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity are not included.
Detail of anthropogenic carbon flows, showing cumulative mass in gigatons during years 1850-2018 (left) and the annual mass average during 2009-2018 (right).
CO2 concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black)
Amount of carbon stored in Earth's various terrestrial ecosystems, in gigatonnes.
A portable soil respiration system measuring soil CO2 flux.
Diagram showing relative sizes (in gigatonnes) of the main storage pools of carbon on Earth. Cumulative changes (thru year 2014) from land use and emissions of fossil carbon are included for comparison.
Carbon is tetrahedrally bonded to oxygen
Knowledge about carbon in the core can be gained by analysing shear wave velocities
Schematic representation of the overall perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by anthropogenic activities, averaged from 2010 to 2019.
The pathway by which plastics enter the world's oceans.
Carbon stored on land in vegetation and soils is aggregated into a single stock ct. Ocean mixed layer carbon, cm, is the only explicitly modelled ocean stock of carbon; though to estimate carbon cycle feedbacks the total ocean carbon is also calculated.
Epiphytes on electric wires. This kind of plant takes both CO{{sub|2}} and water from the atmosphere for living and growing.
CO{{sub|2}} in Earth's atmosphere if half of global-warming emissions are not absorbed.<ref name="NASA-20151112-ab" /><ref name="NASA-20151112b" /><ref name="NYT-20151110" /><ref name="AP-20151109" /> (NASA computer simulation).

The increased carbon dioxide has also increased the acidity of the ocean surface by about 30% due to dissolved carbon dioxide, carbonic acid and other compounds, and is fundamentally altering marine chemistry.

The sediments, including fossil fuels, freshwater systems, and non-living organic material.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average

Climate change

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Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average
Change in average surface air temperature since the industrial revolution, plus drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observed data is in red.
Drivers of climate change from 1850–1900 to 2010–2019. There was no significant contribution from internal variability or solar and volcanic drivers.
concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black)
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
The rate of global tree cover loss has approximately doubled since 2001, to an annual loss approaching an area the size of Italy.
Sea ice reflects 50% to 70% of incoming solar radiation while the dark ocean surface only reflects 6%, so melting sea ice is a self-reinforcing feedback.
Projected global surface temperature changes relative to 1850–1900, based on CMIP6 multi-model mean changes.
The sixth IPCC Assessment Report projects changes in average soil moisture that can disrupt agriculture and ecosystems. A reduction in soil moisture by one standard deviation means that average soil moisture will approximately match the ninth driest year between 1850 and 1900 at that location.
Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program
The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (2021) projects that extreme weather will be progressively more common as the Earth warms.
Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions. If all countries achieve their current Paris Agreement pledges, average warming by 2100 would still significantly exceed the maximum 2 °C target set by the Agreement.
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Economic sectors with more greenhouse gas contributions have a greater stake in climate change policies.
Most emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Since 2000, rising emissions in China and the rest of world have surpassed the output of the United States and Europe.
Per person, the United States generates at a far faster rate than other primary regions.
Academic studies of scientific consensus reflect that the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science.
Data has been cherry picked from short periods to falsely assert that global temperatures are not rising. Blue trendlines show short periods that mask longer-term warming trends (red trendlines). Blue dots show the so-called global warming hiatus.
The 2017 People's Climate March took place in hundreds of locations. Shown: the Washington, D.C. march, protesting policies of then-U.S. President Trump.
Tyndall's ratio spectrophotometer (drawing from 1861) measured how much infrared radiation was absorbed and emitted by various gases filling its central tube.
alt=Underwater photograph of branching coral that is bleached white|Ecological collapse. Bleaching has damaged the Great Barrier Reef and threatens reefs worldwide.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/coral-reef-risk-outlook/|title=Coral Reef Risk Outlook|access-date=4 April 2020|publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|quote=At present, local human activities, coupled with past thermal stress, threaten an estimated 75 percent of the world's reefs. By 2030, estimates predict more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by local human activities, warming, and acidification, with nearly 60% facing high, very high, or critical threat levels.}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of evening in a valley settlement. The skyline in the hills beyond is lit up red from the fires.|Extreme weather. Drought and high temperatures worsened the 2020 bushfires in Australia.<ref>{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 7 January|2020}}.</ref>
alt=The green landscape is interrupted by a huge muddy scar where the ground has subsided.|Arctic warming. Permafrost thaws undermine infrastructure and release methane, a greenhouse gas.
alt=An emaciated polar bear stands atop the remains of a melting ice floe.|Habitat destruction. Many arctic animals rely on sea ice, which has been disappearing in a warming Arctic.<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch28|2014|p=1596|ps=: "Within 50 to 70 years, loss of hunting habitats may lead to elimination of polar bears from seasonally ice-covered areas, where two-thirds of their world population currently live."}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of a large area of forest. The green trees are interspersed with large patches of damaged or dead trees turning purple-brown and light red.|Pest propagation. Mild winters allow more pine beetles to survive to kill large swaths of forest.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nps.gov/romo/learn/nature/climatechange.htm|title=What a changing climate means for Rocky Mountain National Park|publisher=National Park Service|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref>
Environmental migration. Sparser rainfall leads to desertification that harms agriculture and can displace populations. Shown: Telly, Mali (2008).<ref>{{harvnb|Serdeczny|Adams|Baarsch|Coumou|2016}}.</ref>
Agricultural changes. Droughts, rising temperatures, and extreme weather negatively impact agriculture. Shown: Texas, US (2013).<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|pp=439, 464}}.</ref>
Tidal flooding. Sea-level rise increases flooding in low-lying coastal regions. Shown: Venice, Italy (2004).<ref name="NOAAnuisance">{{cite web|url=http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/nuisance-flooding.html |title=What is nuisance flooding? |author=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |access-date=April 8, 2020}}</ref>
Storm intensification. Bangladesh after Cyclone Sidr (2007) is an example of catastrophic flooding from increased rainfall.<ref>{{harvnb|Kabir|Khan|Ball|Caldwell|2016}}.</ref>
Heat wave intensification. Events like the June 2019 European heat wave are becoming more common.<ref>{{harvnb|Van Oldenborgh|Philip|Kew|Vautard|2019}}.</ref>

Burning fossil fuels for energy production creates most of these emissions.

These include sea level rise, and warmer, more acidic oceans.

Crystal structure of dry ice

Carbon dioxide

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Chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms.

Chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms.

Crystal structure of dry ice
Stretching and bending oscillations of the CO2 carbon dioxide molecule. Upper left: symmetric stretching. Upper right: antisymmetric stretching. Lower line: degenerate pair of bending modes.
Pellets of "dry ice", a common form of solid carbon dioxide
Pressure–temperature phase diagram of carbon dioxide. Note that it is a log-lin chart.
Carbon dioxide bubbles in a soft drink
Dry ice used to preserve grapes after harvest
Use of a CO2 fire extinguisher
Comparison of the pressure–temperature phase diagrams of carbon dioxide (red) and water (blue) as a log-lin chart with phase transitions points at 1 atmosphere
A carbon-dioxide laser
Keeling curve of the atmospheric CO2 concentration
Atmospheric CO2 annual growth rose 300% since the 1960s.
Annual flows from anthropogenic sources (left) into Earth's atmosphere, land, and ocean sinks (right) since the 1960s. Units in equivalent gigatonnes carbon per year.
Pterapod shell dissolved in seawater adjusted to an ocean chemistry projected for the year 2100.
Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation
Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon dioxide (at right), together with water, form oxygen and organic compounds (at left) by photosynthesis, which can be respired  to water and (CO2).
Symptoms of carbon dioxide toxicity, by increasing volume percent in air.
Rising levels of CO2 threatened the Apollo 13 astronauts who had to adapt cartridges from the command module to supply the carbon dioxide scrubber in the Lunar Module, which they used as a lifeboat.
CO2 concentration meter using a nondispersive infrared sensor

Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change.

When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase.

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.

Climate change mitigation

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Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Fossil fuels emit most carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas as a whole.

However, dissolved in water leads to ocean acidification, which harms marine life as acidification lowers the level of carbonate ions available for calcifying organisms to form their shells such as the plankton species that contribute to the foundation of the ocean food webs and acidification also impacts on a broad range of other physiological and ecological processes.