A report on Fossil fuel

Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.

Hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and burned as a fuel.

- Fossil fuel
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

38 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The ring road around Amsterdam (shown in red). Ring roads mark the edge of city centers. At exits of ring roads such as this, distribution centers can be set up.

Stranded asset

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Stranded assets are "assets that have suffered from unanticipated or premature write-downs, devaluations or conversion to liabilities".

Stranded assets are "assets that have suffered from unanticipated or premature write-downs, devaluations or conversion to liabilities".

The ring road around Amsterdam (shown in red). Ring roads mark the edge of city centers. At exits of ring roads such as this, distribution centers can be set up.

Companies extracting fossil fuels (fossil oil, coal) face the threat that, due to their contribution towards global warming, consumers could switch to emissionless alternative fuels instead (i.e. hydrogen, biofuels, ...).

Sustainable Development Goal 7

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One of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015.

One of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015.

Number of people in the world with and without access to electricity
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Indoor woodfire stove in Nigeria, causing indoor air pollution
Solar panels in Réunion
Chief Joseph Dam for hydropower, Washington, USA
Energy intensity of economies
Wind turbines in Austria - one of the sources of clean renewable energy
International finance received for clean energy, 2016
SDG-7 Pie Chart for Technology Transfers Literature Based on Scientific Disciplines from Scopus Database 2021

At the same time, an economy reliant on fossil fuels is causing changes to our climate.

World consumption of primary energy by energy type.

Environmental impact of the energy industry

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Significant, as energy and natural resource consumption are closely related.

Significant, as energy and natural resource consumption are closely related.

World consumption of primary energy by energy type.
Energy consumption per capita per country (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.
Global average surface temperature datasets from various scientific organizations show the progress and extent of global warming.
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
Global fossil carbon emission by fuel type, 1800–2007 AD.
Nuclear power activities involving the environment; mining, enrichment, generation and geological disposal.
Livestock grazing near a wind turbine.

The scientific consensus on global warming and climate change is that it is caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the majority of which comes from burning fossil fuels with deforestation and some agricultural practices being also major contributors.

Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones (reddish layers at the cliff base) and limestones (brown rocks above), Virgin Formation, southwestern Utah, U.S.

Sedimentary rock

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Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation.

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation.

Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones (reddish layers at the cliff base) and limestones (brown rocks above), Virgin Formation, southwestern Utah, U.S.
Uluru (Ayers Rock) is a large sandstone formation in Northern Territory, Australia.
Claystone deposited in Glacial Lake Missoula, Montana, United States. Note the very fine and flat bedding, common for deposits coming from lake beds further away from the source of sediment.
Sedimentary rock with sandstone in Malta
Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of the surrounding sandstone by both mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Wind, sand, and water from flash flooding are the primary weathering agents.
Outcrop of Ordovician oil shale (kukersite), northern Estonia
Fossils of Nerinea marine gastropods of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) age, in limestone in Lebanon
Cross-bedding and scour in a fine sandstone; the Logan Formation (Mississippian) of Jackson County, Ohio
Pressure solution at work in a clastic rock. While material dissolves at places where grains are in contact, that material may recrystallize from the solution and act as cement in open pore spaces. As a result, there is a net flow of material from areas under high stress to those under low stress, producing a sedimentary rock that is harder and more compact. Loose sand can become sandstone in this way.
A piece of a banded iron formation, a type of rock that consists of alternating layers with iron(III) oxide (red) and iron(II) oxide (grey). BIFs were mostly formed during the Precambrian, when the atmosphere was not yet rich in oxygen. Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa
Diagram showing well-sorted (left) and poorly sorted (right) grains
Diagram showing the rounding and sphericity of grains
Global collage of sand samples. There is one square centimeter of sand on every sample photo. Sand samples row by row from left to right: 1. Glass sand from Kauai, Hawaii 2. Dune sand from the Gobi Desert 3. Quartz sand with green glauconite from Estonia 4. Volcanic sand with reddish weathered basalt from Maui, Hawaii 5. Biogenic coral sand from Molokai, Hawaii 6. Coral pink sand dunes from Utah 7. Volcanic glass sand from California 8. Garnet sand from Emerald Creek, Idaho 9. Olivine sand from Papakolea, Hawaii.
Fossil-rich layers in a sedimentary rock, Año Nuevo State Reserve, California
Burrows in a turbidite, made by crustaceans, San Vincente Formation (early Eocene) of the Ainsa Basin, southern foreland of the Pyrenees
Cross-bedding in a fluviatile sandstone, Middle Old Red Sandstone (Devonian) on Bressay, Shetland Islands
Flute casts, a type of sole marking on the base of a vertical layer of Triassic sandstone in Spain
Ripple marks formed by a current in a sandstone that was later tilted (Haßberge, Bavaria)
Halite crystal mold in dolomite, Paadla Formation (Silurian), Saaremaa, Estonia
Chert concretions in chalk, Middle Lefkara Formation (upper Paleocene to middle Eocene), Cyprus
Common types of depositional environments
The swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are sediment in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. The blue-green cloud in this image roughly matches the extent of the shallow continental shelf west of the peninsula. This is a perfect example of a shallow marine depositional environment.
Shifting sedimentary facies in the case of transgression (above) and regression of the sea (below)
Plate tectonics diagram showing convergence of an oceanic plate and a continental plate. Note the back-arc basin, forearc basin, and oceanic basin.
Cyclic alternation of competent and less competent beds in the Blue Lias at Lyme Regis, southern England
The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah that makes up much of the famous prominent rock formations in protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park. From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red Kayenta Formation, cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone, slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation, layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation, and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone. Picture from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah.
Distribution of detritus
Sedimentary rocks on Mars, investigated by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover
Steeply dipping sedimentary rock strata along the Chalous Road in northern Iran
Stratified remains of Puʻu Mahana cinder cone.
A regressive facies shown on a stratigraphic column

Sedimentary rocks are also important sources of natural resources including coal, fossil fuels, drinking water and ores.

Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. The close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right) helped establish that petroleum was derived from plants.

Kerogen

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Solid, insoluble organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

Solid, insoluble organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. The close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right) helped establish that petroleum was derived from plants.

When heated to the right temperatures in the earth's crust, (oil window c. 50–150 °C, gas window c. 150–200 °C, both depending on how quickly the source rock is heated) some types of kerogen release crude oil or natural gas, collectively known as hydrocarbons (fossil fuels).

A lump of peat

Peat

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Accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter.

Accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter.

A lump of peat
Peat stacks in Südmoslesfehn (district of Oldenburg, Germany) in 2013
Peat gatherers at Westhay, Somerset Levels in 1905
Peat extraction in East Frisia, Germany
Peat in Lewis, Scotland
PEATMAP is a GIS shapefile dataset that shows a distribution of peatlands that covers the entire world
A peat stack in Ness on the Isle of Lewis (Scotland)
Worked bank in blanket bog, near Ulsta, Yell, Shetland Islands
Falkland Islanders shovelling peat in the 1950s
Peat fire
The Toppila Power Station, a peat-fired facility in Oulu, Finland
Industrial-milled peat production in a section of the Bog of Allen in the Irish Midlands: The 'turf' in the foreground is machine-produced for domestic use.
Shatura Power Station. Russia has the largest peat power capacity in the world
The Bor Peat Briquette Factory, Russia
Peat covered area (brown) 2,500 years ago in the Netherlands
The Netherlands compared to sealevel
Peat hags at the start of Allt Lagan a' Bhainne tributary on Eilrig
Increase, and change relative to previous year, of the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.
Smoke and ozone pollution from Indonesian fires, 1997

Over time, the formation of peat is often the first step in the geological formation of fossil fuels such as coal, particularly low-grade coal such as lignite.

A coal mine in Wyoming, United States. Coal, produced over millions of years, is a finite and non-renewable resource on a human time scale.

Non-renewable resource

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Natural resource that cannot be readily replaced by natural means at a pace quick enough to keep up with consumption.

Natural resource that cannot be readily replaced by natural means at a pace quick enough to keep up with consumption.

A coal mine in Wyoming, United States. Coal, produced over millions of years, is a finite and non-renewable resource on a human time scale.
Raw gold ore that is eventually smelted down into gold metal.
Rössing uranium mine is the longest-running and one of the largest open pit uranium mines in the world, in 2005 it produced eight percent of global uranium oxide needs(3,711 tons). The most productive mines however are the underground McArthur River uranium mine in Canada which produces 13% of the world's uranium, and the similarly underground poly-metallic Olympic Dam mine in Australia, which despite being largely a copper mine, contains the largest known reserve of uranium ore.
Annual release of "technologically enhanced"/concentrated Naturally occurring radioactive material, uranium and thorium radioisotopes naturally found in coal and concentrated in heavy/bottom coal ash and airborne fly ash. As predicted by ORNL to cumulatively amount to 2.9 million tons over the 1937-2040 period, from the combustion of an estimated 637 billion tons of coal worldwide. This 2.9 million tons of actinide fuel, a resource derived from coal ash, would be classified as low grade uranium ore if it occurred naturally.
The Three Gorges Dam, the largest renewable energy generating station in the world.
Satellite map showing areas flooded by the Three Gorges reservoir. Compare 7 November 2006 (above) with 17 April 1987 (below). The energy station required the flooding of archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, and is causing significant ecological changes, including an increased risk of landslides. The dam has been a controversial topic both domestically and abroad.

Earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are always conserved (except in nuclear reactions, nuclear decay or atmospheric escape).

Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942)

Smelting

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Process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal.

Process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal.

Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942)
Casting bronze ding-tripods, from the Chinese Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia of Song Yingxing, published in 1637.
Cowles Syndicate of Ohio in Stoke-upon-Trent England, late 1880s. British Aluminium used the process of Paul Héroult about this time.

The reducing agent is commonly a fossil fuel source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal.

A tar-like substance can be produced from corn stalks by heating them in a microwave. This process is known as pyrolysis.

Tar

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Dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

Dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

A tar-like substance can be produced from corn stalks by heating them in a microwave. This process is known as pyrolysis.
Tar kiln at Trollskogen in Öland, Sweden.
Birch tar.
A boat transporting pine tar barrels on Oulu River in 1910.
A New Method of Macarony Making As Practiced at Boston. Date made: 1830 Maker: Pendleton's Lithography; Johnston, David Claypoole Place: Boston, Massachusetts Description: Black and white print; outdoor scene of three men standing in front of a gallows with a broken rope hanging from the gallows. One man is tarred and feathered from the neck down and has the other half of the broken rope around his neck.

Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons, such as petroleum.

Burning pieces of wood, showing various stages of pyrolysis followed by oxidative combustion.

Pyrolysis

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Thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

Thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

Burning pieces of wood, showing various stages of pyrolysis followed by oxidative combustion.
Processes in the thermal degradation of organic matter at atmospheric pressure.
A blacksmith's forge, with a blower forcing air through a bed of fuel to raise the temperature of the fire. On the periphery, coal is pyrolyzed, absorbing heat; the coke at the center is almost pure carbon, and releases a lot of heat when the carbon oxidizes.
Carbon fibers produced by pyrolyzing a silk cocoon. Electron micrograph, scale bar at bottom left shows 100 μm.
Illustrating inputs and outputs of methane pyrolysis, an efficient one-step process to produce Hydrogen and no greenhouse gas
Illustration of the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy process, which entails pyrolysis of volatiles
Oak charcoal

catagenesis, the natural conversion of buried organic matter to fossil fuels and