A report on Four Olds

A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. "Āndìngménnèidàjiē" (Stability Gate Inner Street) became "Dàyuèjìnlù" (Great Leap Forward Road), "Táijīchǎngdàjiē" (Táijī Factory Street) became "Yǒnggélù" (Perpetually Ousting Road), "Dōngjiāomínxiàng" (East Cross People Lane) was renamed "Fǎndìlù" (Anti-Imperialist Road), "Běihǎigōngyuán" (North Sea Park) was renamed "Gōngnóngbīnggōngyuán" (Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park) and "Jǐngshāngōngyuán" (View Mountain Park) became "Hóngwèibīnggōngyuán" (Red Guard Park). Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.
The remains of Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.
This statue of the Yongle Emperor was originally carved in stone, and was destroyed in the Cultural Revolution. A metal replica is in its place.
The remains of the 8th century Buddhist monk Huineng were attacked during the Cultural Revolution.
The Cemetery of Confucius was attacked by Red Guards in November 1966.
A frieze damaged during the Cultural Revolution, originally from a garden house of a rich imperial official in Suzhou.

Term used during the Cultural Revolution by the student-led Red Guards in the People's Republic of China in reference to the pre-communist elements of Chinese culture they attempted to destroy.

- Four Olds
A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. "Āndìngménnèidàjiē" (Stability Gate Inner Street) became "Dàyuèjìnlù" (Great Leap Forward Road), "Táijīchǎngdàjiē" (Táijī Factory Street) became "Yǒnggélù" (Perpetually Ousting Road), "Dōngjiāomínxiàng" (East Cross People Lane) was renamed "Fǎndìlù" (Anti-Imperialist Road), "Běihǎigōngyuán" (North Sea Park) was renamed "Gōngnóngbīnggōngyuán" (Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park) and "Jǐngshāngōngyuán" (View Mountain Park) became "Hóngwèibīnggōngyuán" (Red Guard Park). Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."

Cultural Revolution

4 links

Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."
People in the countryside working at night to produce steel during the Great Leap Forward
The purge of General Luo Ruiqing solidified the Army's loyalty to Mao.
Mao waved to the "revolutionary masses" on the riverside before his "swim across the Yangtze"
A struggle session of Wang Guangmei, the wife of Liu Shaoqi.
Mao Zedong and Lin Biao surrounded by rallying Red Guards in Beijing. Source: China Pictorial
Tiananmen Square on September 15, 1966, the occasion of Chairman Mao's third of eight mass rallies with Red Guards in 1966. Source: China Pictorial
The remains of Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.
The Cemetery of Confucius was attacked by Red Guards in November 1966.
Anti-Liu Shaoqi rally
Propaganda oil painting of Mao during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Marshal Lin Biao was constitutionally confirmed as Mao's successor in 1969.
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book, Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.
Jiang Qing (left), who was the wife of Mao Zedong and a member of the Gang of Four, received the Red Guards in Beijing with Premier Zhou Enlai (center) and Kang Sheng. They were all holding the Little Red Book (Quotations from Mao) in their hands.
Jiang Qing
Deng Xiaoping became the paramount leader of China in 1978. He started "Boluan Fanzheng" that brought the country back to order, and initiated China's historic Reforms and Opening up.
A struggle session of Xi Zhongxun, the father of Xi Jinping (September 1967). Xi Zhongxun was labelled as an "anti-Party element". However, since late 2012, Xi Jinping and his allies have attempted to play down the disaster of the Cultural Revolution and reversed many reforms since the Boluan Fanzheng period, sparking concerns of a new Cultural Revolution.
Quotations of Mao Zedong on a street wall of Wuxuan County, one of the centers of Guangxi massacre and cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution Cemetery in Chongqing, China. At least 1,700 people were killed during the violent faction clash, with 400 to 500 of them buried in this cemetery.
The Tibetan Panchen Lama during a struggle session.
Struggle session of Sampho Tsewang Rigzin and his wife during the Cultural Revolution.
A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. Andingmen Inner Street became "Great Leap Forward Road", Taijichang Street became the "Road for Eternal Revolution", Dongjiaominxiang was renamed "Anti-Imperialist Road", Beihai Park was renamed "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park" and Jingshan Park became "Red Guard Park." Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.
Yao Tongbin, one of China's foremost missile scientists, was beaten to death by a mob in Beijing during the Cultural Revolution (1968). This caused Zhou Enlai to order special protection for key technical experts.
Remnants of a banner containing slogans from the Cultural Revolution in Anhui.
The ballet The Red Detachment of Women, one of the Model Dramas promoted during the Cultural Revolution.
Posters from the Cultural Revolution period
Buddhist statues defaced during the Cultural Revolution.
The central section of this wall shows the faint remnant marks of a propaganda slogan that was added during the Cultural Revolution, but has since been removed. The slogan read "Boundless faith that in Chairman Mao."

Red Guards destroyed historical relics and artifacts, as well as ransacking cultural and religious sites.

Political slogan by Red Guards on the campus of Fudan University, Shanghai, China says "Defend Central Committee with (our) blood and life! Defend Chairman Mao with (our) blood and life!"

Red Guards

3 links

Red Guards were a mass student-led paramilitary social movement mobilized and guided by Chairman Mao Zedong in 1966 through 1967, during the first phase of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which he had instituted.

Red Guards were a mass student-led paramilitary social movement mobilized and guided by Chairman Mao Zedong in 1966 through 1967, during the first phase of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which he had instituted.

Political slogan by Red Guards on the campus of Fudan University, Shanghai, China says "Defend Central Committee with (our) blood and life! Defend Chairman Mao with (our) blood and life!"
Red Guards in 1966
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
The remains of Ming dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.

Mao made use of the group as propaganda and to accomplish goals such as seizing power and destroying symbols of China's pre-communist past ("Four Olds"), including ancient artifacts and gravesites of notable Chinese figures.

On August 18, 1966, Mao Zedong met with Red Guards on Tiananmen for the first time, triggering massive slaughter in Beijing.

Red August

2 links

Term used to indicate a series of massacres in Beijing which mainly took place during the period.

Term used to indicate a series of massacres in Beijing which mainly took place during the period.

On August 18, 1966, Mao Zedong met with Red Guards on Tiananmen for the first time, triggering massive slaughter in Beijing.
Red Guards on Tiananmen Square of Beijing (September 1966).
Mao Zedong and the Red Guards in Beijing (October 1966).
The rally of Red Guards on Tiananmen Square (1967).
The Red Guards' political propaganda on the campus of Shanghai Fudan University: "Defend the Central Party Committee with blood and life! Defend Chairman Mao with blood and life! ”.

On August 18, 1966, Mao Zedong met with Song Binbin, a leader of the Red Guards, on Tiananmen of Beijing, which greatly encouraged the Red Guards who then started their massive killing in the city and destroyed the "Four Olds" at the same time.

Red Detachment of Women, one of the Eight model plays with Communist themes

Culture of the People's Republic of China

1 links

Rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences.

Rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences.

Red Detachment of Women, one of the Eight model plays with Communist themes
"The Red Sun" Album featuring young Mao Zedong on the cover. A Guoyue theme album.
A performance at the 2007 Midi Modern Music Festival in Beijing.

When the Cultural Revolution began in 1966, all forms of traditional culture, Chinese or Western, were suppressed, including to bring an end to the Four Olds.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.

Lin Biao

2 links

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
200px
Lin Biao with wife Ye Qun and their children
280px
Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army (~1947–1948)
Lin Biao and Ye Qun
On 1 October 1959, Lin Biao, as defense minister, surveyed the honor guards at the military parade celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Lin Biao's calligraphy in the Summer Palace, 1966
Lin Biao (right), Mao Zedong (center) and Zhou Enlai, waving copies of the Little Red Book, at Tiananmen, during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Lin Biao with Mao Zedong
Lin Biao reading the Little Red Book. This is the last photo of him ever taken (1971)
Project 571 Outline
Lin Liguo with Ye Qun
Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport, provenance of the aircraft
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book. Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.

Following the lead of Mao, in 1966 Lin directed Red Guards in Beijing to "smash those persons in power who are traveling the capitalist road, the bourgeoisie reactionary authorities, and all royalists of the bourgeoisie, and to forcibly destroy the "four olds": old culture, old ideas, old customs, and old habits. In August 1966 Lin publicly called for a "three-month turmoil" within the PLA, and on October 6 Lin's Central Military Commission issued an urgent instruction that all military academies and institutes were to dismiss their classes and allow their students to become fully involved in the Cultural Revolution. Following the orders of this directive, officers and commissars were expelled from their positions, and some were beaten to death. Students at Chinese military academies followed Lin's instructions to rebel against their senior officers, breaking into the offices of Lin's National Commission for Defense Science to abduct one of the department's directors, and claiming Lin's deputy chief of staff, Li Tianyu, whom students accused of disciplining them.

Genealogy book

0 links

Used in Asia and Europe to record the family history of ancestors.

Used in Asia and Europe to record the family history of ancestors.

During the Cultural Revolution, many of the books were destroyed, because they were considered by the Chinese Communist Party as among the Four Olds to be eschewed.

Painting from the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Chinese painting

0 links

One of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

One of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

Painting from the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Animalistic guardian spirits of midnight and morning wearing Chinese robes, Han dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) on ceramic tile
Luoshenfu by Gu Kaizhi (344–406 AD)
The Sakyamuni Buddha, by Zhang Shengwen, 1173–1176 CE, Song dynasty
A mural painting of Li Xian's tomb at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706 CE, Tang dynasty
Painting of maple and deer of Liao dynasty, stored in Taiwan's National Palace Museum.
Buddhist Temple in the Mountains, 11th century, ink on silk, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City (Missouri).
Loquats and a Mountain Bird, by an anonymous painter of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279); small album leaf paintings like this were popular amongst the gentry and scholar-officials of the Southern Song.
The "Four Generals of Zhongxing" painted by Liu Songnian during the Southern Song dynasty. Yue Fei is the second person from the left. It is believed to be the "truest portrait of Yue in all extant materials".
Shen Zhou of the Wu School depicted the scene when the painter was making his farewell to Wu Kuan, a good friend of his, at Jingkou.
A View of Henan Island (Honam), Canton, Qing dynasty
Shop of Tingqua, the painter
"Portrait of Madame Liu" (1942) Li Tiefu
A timeline of Chinese landscape painting from early Tang to the present day
A landscape painting by Guo Xi. This piece shows a scene of deep and serene mountain valley covered with snow and several old trees struggling to survive on precipitous cliffs.

Major destruction was also carried out as part of the elimination of Four Olds campaign.