Fourth Crusade

CrusadersCrusaderFourthLatin conquest4th Crusadecollapse of Byzantine Empire1204fall of Byzantine Empire in 1204LatinsSack of Constantinople
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first conquering the powerful Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate, the strongest Muslim state of the time.wikipedia
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Siege of Zara

Siege of ZadarSiege of Zadar (1202)siege
In late 1202, financial issues led to the Crusader army sacking Zara, which was then brought under Venetian control.
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Opsada Zadra, Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
However, a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire, rather than Egypt as originally planned.
The Byzantine Empire was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

Pope Innocent III

Innocent IIIPopeLotario de' Conti di Segni
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy in January 1198, and the preaching of a new crusade became the prime goal of his pontificate, expounded in his bull Post miserabile.
He organized the Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, which ended in the disastrous sack of Constantinople.

Republic of Venice

VenetianVeniceVenetian Republic
In late 1202, financial issues led to the Crusader army sacking Zara, which was then brought under Venetian control. Boniface and the other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states in 1200 to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the stated objective of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin.
The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade.

Despotate of Epirus

EpirusDespot of EpirusEpirote
The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus.
The Despotate of Epirus was one of the Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
In January 1203, en route to Jerusalem, the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as emperor.
In 1204, however, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, and its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule.

Frankokratia

FrankishFrankish GreeceLatin
The Crusaders then founded several Crusader states in former Byzantine territory, largely hinged upon the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
The Frankokratia (Φραγκοκρατία, sometimes anglicized as Francocracy, lit. "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (Βενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).

Nicaean–Latin wars

Nicaean-Latin WarsByzantine successor statesLatin Empire, Nicaean wars with the
The presence of the Latin Crusader states almost immediately led to war with the Byzantine successor states and the Bulgarian Empire.
The Nicaean–Latin wars were a series of wars between the Latin Empire and the Empire of Nicaea, starting with the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.

Empire of Nicaea

Nicaean emperorNicaeaNicaean Empire
The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus.
The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire is the conventional historiographic name for the largest of the three Byzantine Greek rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.

Empire of Trebizond

TrebizondEmperor of TrebizondTrapezuntine Empire
The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus.
After the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade overthrew Alexios V and established the Latin Empire, the Empire of Trebizond became one of three Byzantine successor states to claim the imperial throne, alongside the Empire of Nicaea under the Laskaris family and the Despotate of Epirus under a branch of the Angelos family.

Decline of the Byzantine Empire

declinefall of the Byzantine Empirealready weakened Byzantine Empire
The Fourth Crusade is considered to have solidified the East-West Schism, and dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire, paving the way for Muslim conquests in Anatolia and the Balkans in the coming centuries.
However, economic concessions to the Italian Republics of Venice and Genoa weakened the empire's control over its own finances, especially from the 13th century onward, while tensions with the West led to the Sack of Constantinople by the forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and the dismemberment of the empire.

East–West Schism

Great SchismEast-West Schismschism
The Fourth Crusade is considered to have solidified the East-West Schism, and dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire, paving the way for Muslim conquests in Anatolia and the Balkans in the coming centuries.
The Latin led Crusades, the Massacre of the Latins in 1182, the West's retaliation in the Sacking of Thessalonica in 1185, the capture and pillaging of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and the imposition of Latin patriarchs made reconciliation more difficult.

Bulgarian–Latin wars

counter the BulgariansLatin Empire, Bulgarian wars with First Bulgarian–Latin War
The presence of the Latin Crusader states almost immediately led to war with the Byzantine successor states and the Bulgarian Empire.
On 13 April 1204 the knights of the Fourth Crusade seized the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), Constantinople, and replaced the ancient Byzantine Empire with a new Crusader state, the Latin Empire.

Third Crusade

crusadeThirdcrusaders
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was launched in response to the fall of Jerusalem and with the goal of recovering it.
The failure to re-capture Jerusalem inspired the subsequent Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, but Europeans would only regain the city—and only briefly—in the Sixth Crusade in 1229.

Alexios III Angelos

Alexios IIIAlexius IIIAlexius III Angelus
Ascending as Alexios III Angelos, the new emperor had his brother blinded (a traditional punishment for treason, considered more humane than execution) and exiled.
The most significant event of his reign was the attack of the Fourth Crusade on Constantinople in 1203, on behalf of Alexios IV Angelos.

Alexios IV Angelos

Alexios IVAlexios AngelosAlexius IV
In January 1203, en route to Jerusalem, the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as emperor.
According to the contemporary account of Robert of Clari it was while Alexius was at Swabia's court that he met with Marquis Boniface of Montferrat, Philip's cousin, who had been chosen to lead the Fourth Crusade, but had temporarily left the Crusade during the siege of Zara to visit Philip.

Siege of Constantinople (1203)

Siege of ConstantinopleFirst Siege of Constantinoplesiege
In August, following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios was crowned co-emperor.
It marked the main outcome of the Fourth Crusade.

Fulk of Neuilly

FOULQUESFoulques de NeuillyFulco of Neuilly
However, due to the preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, a crusading army was finally organised at a tournament held at Écry-sur-Aisne by Count Thibaut of Champagne in 1199.
His preaching encouraged the Fourth Crusade.

Second Bulgarian Empire

Bulgarian EmpireBulgariaBulgarian
The Byzantines for their part suspected him of conspiring with the breakaway Byzantine provinces of Serbia and Bulgaria.
Several months before Kaloyan's coronation, the leaders of the Fourth Crusade turned on the Byzantine Empire and captured Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire.

Geoffrey of Villehardouin

VillehardouinGeoffroy de VillehardouinGeoffrey de Villehardouin
Boniface and the other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states in 1200 to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the stated objective of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin.
1150 – c. 1213–1218 ) was a knight and historian who participated in and chronicled the Fourth Crusade.

Post Miserabile

Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy in January 1198, and the preaching of a new crusade became the prime goal of his pontificate, expounded in his bull Post miserabile.
Post miserabile (Sadly, after) was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent III on 15 August 1198 calling for the Fourth Crusade in the Holy Land.

Rump state

rumpList of rump statesremnant state
The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus.

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenoan
Boniface and the other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states in 1200 to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the stated objective of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin.
As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position.

Enrico Dandolo

Doge DandoloDoge Enrico DandoloDoge of Venice
Other notable groups came from the Holy Roman Empire, including the men under Martin, abbot of Pairis Abbey and Bishop Conrad of Halberstadt, together in alliance with the Venetian soldiers and sailors led by the doge, Enrico Dandolo.
He is remembered for his avowed piety, longevity, and shrewdness, and is known for his role in the Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople.

Venice

VenetianVenice, ItalyVenezia
The majority of the crusading army that set out from Venice in early October 1202 originated from areas within France.
Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which, having veered off course, culminated in 1204 by capturing and sacking Constantinople and establishing the Latin Empire.