Fourth generation of video game consoles

16-bit16-bit eraFourth generationfourthfourth-generation16-bit eras16-bit graphics16-bit systems16 bit era16-bit console
In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of game consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America).wikipedia
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Neo Geo (system)

Neo GeoNeo Geo MVSNeo-Geo
Finally, this generation ended with the discontinuation of the Neo Geo in 2004.
The Neo Geo, stylised as NEO・GEO, also written as NEOGEO, is a cartridge-based arcade system board and fourth-generation home video game console released on April 26, 1990, by Japanese game company SNK Corporation.

Sonic the Hedgehog

Chaos EmeraldsringsSonic
Sega, however, was extremely successful in this generation and began a new franchise, Sonic the Hedgehog, to compete with Nintendo's Super Mario series of games.
Its success helped Sega become one of the leading video game companies during the 16-bit era of the early 1990s.

TurboDuo

Turbo DuoPC Engine DuoNEC TurboDuo
NEC released a CD add-on in 1990 and by 1992 had released a combination TurboGrafx and CD-ROM system known as the TurboDuo.
The TurboDuo is a fourth-generation video game console developed by NEC Home Electronics and Hudson Soft for the North American market.

2.5D

pseudo-3Dthree-dimensional3/4 perspective
They are popular camera perspectives among 2D video games, most commonly those released for 16-bit or earlier and handheld consoles, as well as in later strategy and role-playing video games.

Sega

Sega of AmericaSega EuropeHideaki Kobayashi
Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES; the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Sega Genesis (named the Mega Drive in other regions).
The Mega Drive struggled to compete against the Famicom and lagged behind Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine in Japanese sales throughout the 16-bit era.

Sega Saturn

SaturnSSarcade
By late 1995, Sega was supporting five different consoles and two add-ons, and Sega Enterprises chose to discontinue the Mega Drive in Japan to concentrate on the new Sega Saturn.
Released in 1988, the Genesis (known as the Mega Drive in Europe, Japan and Australia) was Sega's entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles.

Nintendo

Nintendo of AmericaNintendo.comNintendo of Europe
Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES; the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Sega Genesis (named the Mega Drive in other regions).
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (Super NES or SNES) is a 16-bit video game console, which was released in North America in 1991, and in Europe in 1992.

Sega CD

Mega-CDSega Mega-CDMega CD
The Sega CD was released with an unusually high price tag ($300 at its release) and a limited library of games.
The Sega CD, released as the Mega-CD in most regions outside North America and Brazil, is a CD-ROM accessory for the Sega Genesis designed and produced by Sega as part of the fourth generation of video game consoles.

Video game music

Video game soundtrackvideo game composermusic
The widespread adoption of FM synthesis by consoles would later be one of the major advances of the 16-bit era, by which time 16-bit arcade machines were using multiple FM synthesis chips.

Parallax scrolling

parallaxParallax scrollscrolling
Games designed for older graphical chipsets—such as those of the third and fourth generations of video game consoles, those of dedicated TV games, or those of similar handheld systems—take advantage of the raster characteristics to create the illusion of more layers.

CD-ROM

CDCD-ROM driveCD-ROM XA
Initially, the PC Engine was quite successful in Japan, partly due to titles available on the then-new CD-ROM format.
During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles.

List of commercial failures in video gaming

commercial failuredigiBlastcommercial failures
The CD-i was a commercial failure and was discontinued in 1998, selling only 1 million units worldwide despite several partnerships and multiple versions of the device, some made by other manufacturers.
Also, the console appeared just as the 16-bit era was starting, which left no chance for it to succeed as it was unable to compete with consoles like the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Mega Drive.

Sega Channel

A unique add-on for the Sega console was Sega Channel, a subscription-based service (a form of online gaming delivery) hosted by local television providers.
Released in Japan as the Mega Drive in 1988, North America in 1989, and Europe and other regions as the Mega Drive in 1990, the Sega Genesis was Sega's entry into the 16-bit era of video game consoles.

TurboGrafx-16

PC EngineTurboGrafx-CDPC-Engine
In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of game consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America).
It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, although it used a modified 8-bit CPU.

Sega Genesis

Mega DriveSega Mega DriveMega Drive/Genesis
Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES; the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Sega Genesis (named the Mega Drive in other regions).
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive outside North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega.

Secret of Mana

Seiken Densetsu 2Forêt de manaSecret of Mana (2018)
Popular US games imported at this time included Final Fantasy IV (known in the US as Final Fantasy II), Final Fantasy VI (known in the US as Final Fantasy III), Secret of Mana, Street Fighter II, Chrono Trigger, and Super Mario RPG.
Like many other role-playing games of the 16-bit era, Secret of Mana displays a top-down perspective, in which the player characters navigate the terrain and fight off hostile creatures.

32X

Sega 32XSega NeptuneSuper 32X
The Sega Genesis, initially released in Japan as the Mega Drive in 1988, was Sega's entry into the 16-bit era of video game consoles.

CD-i

Philips CD-iPhilips Interactive MediaGreen Book
While as with prior generations, game media still continued to be primarily provided on ROM cartridges, though the first optical disk systems, such as the Philips CD-i, were released to limited success.

Role-playing video game

role-playingRPGrole-playing game
Also, few RPGs were released in Europe because the market for the genre was not as large as in Japan or North America, and the increasing amount of time and money required for translation as RPGs became more text-heavy, in addition to the usual need to convert the games to the PAL standard, often made localizing the games to Europe a high-cost venture with little potential payoff.
In addition, a large number of Western independent games are modelled after Japanese RPGs, especially those of the 16-bit era, partly due to the RPG Maker game development tools.

Super Nintendo Entertainment System

Super NESSuper FamicomSNES
Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES; the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Sega Genesis (named the Mega Drive in other regions).
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), also known as the Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America.

F-Zero (video game)

F-ZeroBS F-Zero Grand Prix1990 ''F-Zero'' game
Nintendo's market position was defined by their machine's increased video and sound capabilities, as well as exclusive first-party franchise titles such as F-Zero, Starfox, Donkey Kong Country, Super Mario Kart, Super Mario World, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Super Metroid.
IGN's Peer Schneider assured readers F-Zero was one of the few 16-bit era video games to "perfectly combine presentation and functionality to create a completely new gaming experience".

Sonic the Hedgehog (character)

Sonic the HedgehogSonicSuper Sonic
Sega built their marketing campaign around their new mascot Sonic the Hedgehog, pushing the Genesis as the "cooler" alternative to Nintendo's console and inventing the term "Blast Processing" to suggest that the Genesis was capable of handling games with faster motion than the SNES.
As Sega's mascot and one of the key reasons for the company's success during the 16-bit era of video game consoles, Sonic is one of the most famous video game characters in the world.

Game Gear

Sega Game GearGGKid's Gear
Handheld systems released during this time include the Nintendo Game Boy, released in 1989, and the Sega Game Gear, first released in 1990.
The Game Gear is an 8-bit fourth generation handheld game console released by Sega on October 6, 1990 in Japan, in April 1991 throughout North America and Europe, and during 1992 in Australia.

Game Boy

Nintendo Game BoyGame Boy PocketGame Boy Light
Handheld systems released during this time include the Nintendo Game Boy, released in 1989, and the Sega Game Gear, first released in 1990.
Despite being technologically inferior to its fourth-generation competitors (Sega's Game Gear, Atari's Lynx, and NEC's TurboExpress), the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability in its construction.