Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005
Grooved body of a Second World War-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade. The grooves covering the exterior of the grenade are used to aid in the gripping of the grenade when throwing.
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED, approximately 90 –.
Diagram of S-mine in the delivery of steel ball fragments
X-ray of a suitcase showing a pipe bomb and a laptop.
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Improvised explosive device in Iraq. The concave copper shape on top defines an explosively formed penetrator/projectile
Artillery shells and gasoline cans discovered in the back of a pick-up truck in Iraq
Early artillery shell, with the fragments it would generate. 1900
A U.S. Marine in Iraq shown with a robot used for disposal of buried devices
Artillery shell fragment from the Gulf War
Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is used by the IDF Combat Engineering Corps for clearing heavy belly charges and booby-trapped buildings.
Grenade fragments in the soft tissue of the lower leg (along with an old fracture of the fibula)
U.S. Marines with Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an improvised explosive device cache in southern Afghanistan in June 2010.
A Stryker lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq. (2007)
Oil-drum roadside IED removed from culvert in 1984
Wheelbarrow counter-IED robot on streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Captured IEDs from a cache left behind by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syria, 26 January 2019

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing, shot, or other components of an anti-personnel weapon, bomb, barrel bomb, land mine, IED, artillery, mortar, tank gun, or autocannon shell, rocket, missile, grenade, etc. are dispersed and/or shattered by the detonation of the explosive filler.

- Fragmentation (weaponry)

Car bombs can carry thousands of pounds of explosives and may be augmented with shrapnel to increase fragmentation.

- Improvised explosive device
Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005

3 related topics

Alpha

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50

Land mine

Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
Swedish FFV 028 anti-tank-mines of the German Bundeswehr (inert versions)
Roman caltrop
Illustration of the "self-tripped trespass land mine" from the Huolongjing
'Underground sky soaring thunder', land mines connected to weapons above ground, from the Wubei Zhi
Cutaway diagram of the S-mine
The Schu-mine 42, the most common mine used in the Second World War
Claymore mine with firing device and electric blasting cap assembly
An L9 Bar Mine
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuze well on the side of the mine designed for an anti-handling device
Diagram of components
Examples of anti-handling devices
Anti personnel mine in Cambodia
A U.S. Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal technician removing the fuze from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq
Argentine minefield at Port William, Falkland Islands created in 1982; clearance inhibited by boggy terrain
Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO
British Royal Engineers practice mine clearance
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty (in blue)
Bomb disposal Advanced Bomb Suit

Overlapping both categories is the improvised explosive device (IED), which is "a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, destructive, lethal, noxious, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, disfigure, distract or harass. They may incorporate military stores, but are normally devised from non-military components."

Their defensive line, the Mannerheim Line, integrated these natural defenses with mines, including simple fragmentation mines mounted on stakes.

A "wind-and-dust" bomb depicted in the Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The pot contains a tube of gunpowder, and was thrown at invaders.

Bomb

Explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

Explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

A "wind-and-dust" bomb depicted in the Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The pot contains a tube of gunpowder, and was thrown at invaders.
An illustration depicting bombs thrown at Manchu assault ladders during the siege of Ningyuan, from the book Thai Tsu Shih Lu Thu (Veritable Records of the Great Ancestor) written in 1635. The bombs are known as "thunder-crash bombs."
Thunder crash bombs from the Mongol invasions of Japan (13th century) that were excavated from a shipwreck near Takashim, Japan.
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Diagram of a simple time bomb in the form of a pipe bomb
An American B61 nuclear bomb on its loading carriage
Unexploded unguided aerial bomb with contact fuse used by the Portuguese Air Force, Guinea-Bissau War of Independence, March 1974.
A B-2 Spirit drops forty-seven 500 lb class Mark 82 bombs (little more than half a B-2's maximum total ordnance payload) in a 1994 live fire exercise in California
An F-15E Strike Eagle releasing 1 5000 lb GBU-28 "Bunker Buster" during a test
Soviet's bombing destruction during the Continuation War in Helsinki, Finland, the night of February 6-7, 1944.

For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, homemade bombs called "improvised explosive devices" (IEDs) have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.

Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects.

Demonstration of a German stielhandgranate (shaft hand grenade), a high explosive grenade with time fuze, the Netherlands, 1946.

Grenade

Explosive weapon typically thrown by hand , but can also refer to a shell (explosive projectile) shot from the muzzle of a rifle (as a rifle grenade) or a grenade launcher.

Explosive weapon typically thrown by hand , but can also refer to a shell (explosive projectile) shot from the muzzle of a rifle (as a rifle grenade) or a grenade launcher.

Demonstration of a German stielhandgranate (shaft hand grenade), a high explosive grenade with time fuze, the Netherlands, 1946.
M67 fragmentation grenade, a modern (1968-present) hand grenade in the US
Hand grenades filled with Greek fire; surrounded by caltrops. (10th–12th centuries National Historical Museum, Athens, Greece)
Mongolian grenade attack on Japanese during Yuan dynasty.
Seven ceramic hand grenades of the 17th Century found in Ingolstadt Germany
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb known as the 'divine bone dissolving fire oil bomb' (lan gu huo you shen pao) from the Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Earliest known representation of a gun (a fire lance) and a grenade (upper right), Dunhuang, 10th century AD.
A cross-section of a Ketchum Grenade, used during the American Civil War.
One of the earliest modern hand grenades. Fielded in the British Army from 1908, it was unsuccessful in the trenches of World War I, and was replaced by the Mills bomb.
The Mills bomb – the first modern fragmentation grenade – was used in the trenches from 1915
Cross section of the Model 24 Stielhandgranate
World War II-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade
German DM51 hand grenade with blast core (top) and fragmentation sleeve (bottom)
Diagram of the Mk3A2 concussion grenade
Soviet RPG-43 HEAT grenade
M84 stun grenade (1995–present)
Incendiary grenade
Inert training grenade made from hard rubber
Hand grenade fuze system
M61 grenade (1959-1968), with safety clip around the lever and the bent tip of the safety pin at top
Typical safety pin. A cotter pin with a ring attached
An infantryman throwing a hand grenade during training, 1942
Grenade immediately after being thrown at a practice range. The safety lever has separated in mid-air from the body of the grenade.
Hand grenade converted to booby trap with pull trip wire trigger
Grenade on a kepi of the French Army

Their outer casings, generally made of a hard synthetic material or steel, are designed to rupture and fragment on detonation, sending out numerous fragments (shards and splinters) as fast-flying projectiles.

However, they were still used with limited success against lightly-armored mine-resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles, designed for protection only against improvised explosive devices in the Iraqi insurgency in the early 2000s.