A report on Frame rate

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.
Low frame rate video
Video with 4 times increased frame rate

Frequency (rate) at which consecutive images (frames) are captured or displayed.

- Frame rate
This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

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1908 poster advertising Gaumont's sound films. The Chronomégaphone, designed for large halls, employed compressed air to amplify the recorded sound.

Sound film

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Motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.

Motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.

1908 poster advertising Gaumont's sound films. The Chronomégaphone, designed for large halls, employed compressed air to amplify the recorded sound.
Image from The Dickson Experimental Sound Film (1894 or 1895), produced by W.K.L. Dickson as a test of the early version of the Edison Kinetophone, combining the Kinetoscope and phonograph.
Eric M. C. Tigerstedt (1887–1925) was one of pioneers of sound-on-film technology. Tigerstedt in 1915.
Poster featuring Sarah Bernhardt and giving the names of eighteen other "famous artists" shown in "living visions" at the 1900 Paris Exposition using the Gratioulet-Lioret system.
Newspaper ad for a 1925 presentation of Phonofilm shorts, touting their technological distinction: no phonograph.
Poster for Warner Bros.' Don Juan (1926), the first major motion picture to premiere with a full-length synchronized soundtrack. Audio recording engineer George Groves, the first in Hollywood to hold the job, would supervise sound on Woodstock, 44 years later.
Western Electric engineer E. B. Craft, at left, demonstrating the Vitaphone projection system. A Vitaphone disc had a running time of about 11 minutes, enough to match that of a 1000 ft reel of 35 mm film.
Newspaper ad from a fully equipped theater in Tacoma, Washington, showing The Jazz Singer, on Vitaphone, and a Fox newsreel, on Movietone, together on the same bill.
Dorothy Mackaill and Milton Sills in The Barker, First National's inaugural talkie. The film was released in December 1928, two months after Warner Bros. acquired a controlling interest in the studio.
The Prague-raised star of Blackmail (1929), Anny Ondra, was an industry favorite, but her thick accent became an issue when the film was reshot with sound. Without post-dubbing capacity, her dialogue was simultaneously recorded offscreen by actress Joan Barry. Ondra's British film career was over.
The first Soviet talkie, Putevka v zhizn (The Road to Life; 1931), concerns the issue of homeless youth. As Marcel Carné put it, "in the unforgettable images of this spare and pure story we can discern the effort of an entire nation."
Director Heinosuke Gosho's Madamu to nyobo (The Neighbor's Wife and Mine; 1931), a production of the Shochiku studio, was the first major commercial and critical success of Japanese sound cinema.
Alam Ara premiered March 14, 1931, in Bombay. The first Indian talkie was so popular that "police aid had to be summoned to control the crowds." It was shot with the Tanar single-system camera, which recorded sound directly onto the film.
Show Girl in Hollywood (1930), one of the first sound films about sound filmmaking, depicts microphones dangling from the rafters and multiple cameras shooting simultaneously from soundproofed booths. The poster shows a camera unboothed and unblimped, as it might be when shooting a musical number with a prerecorded soundtrack.
Example of a variable-area sound track—the width of the white area is proportional to the amplitude of the audio signal at each instant.
The unkind cover of Photoplay, December 1929, featuring Norma Talmadge. As movie historian David Thomson puts it, "sound proved the incongruity of [her] salon prettiness and tenement voice."
Premiering February 1, 1929, MGM's The Broadway Melody was the first smash-hit talkie from a studio other than Warner Bros. and the first sound film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Poster for Acabaram-se os otários (1929), performed in Portuguese. The first Brazilian talkie was also the first anywhere in an Iberian language.
Westfront 1918 (1930) was celebrated for its expressive re-creation of battlefield sounds, like the doomful whine of an unseen grenade in flight.
Image of sumo wrestlers from Melodie der Welt (1929), "one of the initial successes of a new art form", in André Bazin's description. "It flung the whole earth onto the screen in a jigsaw of visual images and sounds."

Before sound, 16 frames per second (fps) was the supposed norm, but practice varied widely.

A still from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

Silent film

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Film with no synchronized recorded sound .

Film with no synchronized recorded sound .

A still from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.
Charlie Chaplin, widely acclaimed as one of the most iconic actors of the silent era, c. undefined 1919
The Horse in Motion, animated from a plate by Eadweard Muybridge, made with an array of cameras set up along a racetrack
Roundhay Garden Scene, which has a running time of just over two seconds, was filmed in 1888. It is believed to be the world's earliest surviving motion-picture film. The elderly lady in black is Sarah Whitley, the mother-in-law of filmmaker Louis Le Prince; she died ten days after this scene was filmed.
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) used stylized inter-titles.
Lillian Gish, the "First Lady of the American Cinema", was a leading star in the silent era with one of the longest careers—1912 to 1987.
Cinématographe Lumière at the Institut Lumière, France. Such cameras had no audio recording devices built into the cameras.
A scene from The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari starring Friedrich Feher—an example of an amber-tinted film
Price for a hand-colored print of Ben Hur in 1908
A still from Saved from the Titanic (1912), which featured survivors of the disaster. It is now among those considered a lost film.
Lon Chaney (active 1913-1930) was one of the most talented spinet character actors of all time. His unique ability to transform into the most physically grotesque characters earned him the universal name, “Man of a Thousand Faces”.

Until the standardization of the projection speed of 24 frames per second (fps) for sound films between 1926 and 1930, silent films were shot at variable speeds (or "frame rates") anywhere from 12 to 40 fps, depending on the year and studio.

35 mm movie projector in operation

Movie projector

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Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

35 mm movie projector in operation
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

A critical part of understanding this visual perception phenomenon is that the eye is not a camera, i.e.: there is no frame rate for the human eye or brain.

Film frame

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One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture.

One of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture.

The frame is also sometimes used as a unit of time, so that a momentary event might be said to last six frames, the actual duration of which depends on the frame rate of the system, which varies according to the video or film standard in use.

Flicker fusion threshold

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Concept in the psychophysics of vision.

Concept in the psychophysics of vision.

If the frame rate falls below the flicker fusion threshold for the given viewing conditions, flicker will be apparent to the observer, and movements of objects on the film will appear jerky.

An illustration of the process

Three-two pull down

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Term used in filmmaking and television production for the post-production process of transferring film to video.

Term used in filmmaking and television production for the post-production process of transferring film to video.

An illustration of the process
3:2-Pull-down

Film runs at a standard rate of 24 frames per second, whereas NTSC video has a signal frame rate of 29.97 frames per second.

Earth's rotation causes motion blur in long-exposure photos of the night sky. This diurnal motion leaves star trails in exposures like this one taken at La Silla Observatory.

Motion blur

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Apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation.

Apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation.

Earth's rotation causes motion blur in long-exposure photos of the night sky. This diurnal motion leaves star trails in exposures like this one taken at La Silla Observatory.
An example of motion blur showing a London bus passing a telephone box in London
1920s example of motion blur
Two animations rotating around a figure, with motion blur (left) and without
A taxicab starting to drive off blurred the girls' faces in the image.
Motion blur is frequently employed in sports photography (particularly motor sports) to convey a sense of speed. To achieve this effect it is necessary to use a slow shutter speed and pan the lens of the camera in time with the motion of the object
Taken aboard an airplane turning above San Jose at night. The city lights form concentric strips.
The traffic on this street leaves brilliant streaks due to the low shutter speed of the camera and the cars' relatively fast speed.
Strickland Falls in Tasmania, Australia, taken using a neutral density filter. ND filters reduce light of all colors or wavelengths equally, allowing an increase in aperture and decrease in shutter speed without overexposing the image. To create the motion blur seen here, the shutter must be kept open for a relatively long time, making it necessary to reduce the amount of light coming through the lens.
Long exposure photograph of moths showing exaggerated rod effect.

This is why a video game with a frame rate of 25-30 frames per second will seem staggered, while natural motion filmed at the same frame rate appears rather more continuous.