François-Alphonse Forel

F.A. Forel
François-Alphonse Forel (February 2, 1841 – August 7, 1912) was a Swiss scientist who pioneered the study of lakes, and is thus considered the founder of limnology.wikipedia
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Limnology

limnologistlimnologicallimnologists
François-Alphonse Forel (February 2, 1841 – August 7, 1912) was a Swiss scientist who pioneered the study of lakes, and is thus considered the founder of limnology.
The term limnology was coined by François-Alphonse Forel (1841–1912) who established the field with his studies of Lake Geneva.

Seiche

seichesseiche waveUnderwater wave
He discovered the phenomenon of density currents in lakes, and explained seiches, the rhythmic oscillations observed in enclosed waters.
The term was promoted by the Swiss hydrologist François-Alphonse Forel in 1890, who was the first to make scientific observations of the effect in Lake Geneva, Switzerland.

Morges

Morges, SwitzerlandMorges VD
Born in Morges on Lake Geneva, he worked as a professor of medicine at the University of Lausanne.

Wilhelm Ule

Willi Ule
In collaboration with Wilhelm Ule, developed the Forel-Ule scale, used to evaluate the colour of a body of water.
With Swiss scientist François-Alphonse Forel (1841-1912), he was co-creator of the "Forel-Ule scale", a method used for obtaining an approximate measurement of surface water color.

Rossi–Forel scale

Rossi-Forel scaleRossi–Forel intensity
In a totally different field, in cooperation with the Italian seismologist Michele Stefano de Rossi, he developed the Rossi–Forel scale to describe the intensity of an earthquake.
Developed by Michele Stefano Conte de Rossi of Italy and François-Alphonse Forel of Switzerland in the late 19th century, it was used for about two decades until the introduction of the Mercalli intensity scale in 1902.

Forel-Ule scale

In collaboration with Wilhelm Ule, developed the Forel-Ule scale, used to evaluate the colour of a body of water.
The method was developed by François-Alphonse Forel and was three years later extended with greenish brown to cola brown colors by the German limnologist Willi Ule.

Michele Stefano de Rossi

Michele Stefano Conte de Rossi
In a totally different field, in cooperation with the Italian seismologist Michele Stefano de Rossi, he developed the Rossi–Forel scale to describe the intensity of an earthquake.
Meanwhile, in Switzerland, independent of Rossi, limnologist François-Alphonse Forel (1841–1912) created a similar seismic scale.

Foreltinden

Foreltinden, a mountain at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is named after him.
The mountain is named after Swiss glaciologist and limnologist François-Alphonse Forel.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
François-Alphonse Forel (February 2, 1841 – August 7, 1912) was a Swiss scientist who pioneered the study of lakes, and is thus considered the founder of limnology.

Lake

lacustrinefreshwater lakenatural freshwater lake
François-Alphonse Forel (February 2, 1841 – August 7, 1912) was a Swiss scientist who pioneered the study of lakes, and is thus considered the founder of limnology.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Born in Morges on Lake Geneva, he worked as a professor of medicine at the University of Lausanne.

University of Lausanne

LausanneLausanne UniversityAcademy of Lausanne
Born in Morges on Lake Geneva, he worked as a professor of medicine at the University of Lausanne.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
But his real love was the lake; his investigations of biology, chemistry, water circulation, and sedimentation, and most importantly their interactions, established the foundation of a new discipline.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
But his real love was the lake; his investigations of biology, chemistry, water circulation, and sedimentation, and most importantly their interactions, established the foundation of a new discipline.

Circulation (fluid dynamics)

circulationcirculatedcirculating
But his real love was the lake; his investigations of biology, chemistry, water circulation, and sedimentation, and most importantly their interactions, established the foundation of a new discipline.

Sedimentation

sedimentsedimentssedimentary
But his real love was the lake; his investigations of biology, chemistry, water circulation, and sedimentation, and most importantly their interactions, established the foundation of a new discipline.

Lake Geneva

Lac LémanLake LémanLake of Geneva
Born in Morges on Lake Geneva, he worked as a professor of medicine at the University of Lausanne. In his chief work, Le Léman, published in three volumes between 1892 and 1904, he named his activity limnology in analogy with oceanography ("limnography" could have been confused with the limnograph, which measures water level in lakes).

Oceanography

oceanographeroceanographicmarine science
In his chief work, Le Léman, published in three volumes between 1892 and 1904, he named his activity limnology in analogy with oceanography ("limnography" could have been confused with the limnograph, which measures water level in lakes).

Gravity current

density currentdensity currentsGravity current box models
He discovered the phenomenon of density currents in lakes, and explained seiches, the rhythmic oscillations observed in enclosed waters.

University of Geneva

GenevaGeneva UniversityAcademy of Geneva
The Institute F.-A. Forel of the University of Geneva is named after Forel.

Spitsbergen

SpitzbergenVestspitsbergenWest Spitsbergen
Foreltinden, a mountain at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is named after him.

Svalbard

SpitzbergenSvalbard ArchipelagoSpitsbergen
Foreltinden, a mountain at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is named after him.

Maule, Chile

MauleMaule (Chile)
Forel (station) in Maule, Chile is named after him after he lived close to the station.

Euripus Strait

EuripusEvriposchannel of the Euripus
The Swiss scholar François-Alphonse Forel contributed to an understanding of the enigmatic phenomenon by his study of limnology and the discovery of seiche, where layers of water of differing temperature oscillate in thickness in a confined body of water.