Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, FrancisGalton SocietyGalton, Sir FrancisGaltonesqueGaltonianGalton´s
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.wikipedia
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Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
The definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883.

Regression toward the mean

regression to the meanRegression towards the meanmean regression
He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean.
The British polymath Sir Francis Galton first observed the phenomenon in the context of simple linear regression of data points.

Nature versus nurture

nature and nurturenurturenature vs. nurture
The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalised one than viriculture, which I once ventured to use." He also coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
The phrase in its modern sense was popularized by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton, the modern founder of eugenics and behavioral genetics, discussing the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement.

Hereditary Genius

The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalised one than viriculture, which I once ventured to use." He also coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry Into Its Laws and Consequences is a book by Francis Galton about the supposed genetic inheritance of intelligence.

Psychometrics

psychometricpsychometricianpsychometric tests
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician. As an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics (the science of measuring mental faculties) and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality.
Psychological testing has come from two streams of thought: the first, from Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences, and the second, from Herbart, Weber, Fechner, and Wundt and their psychophysical measurements of a similar construct.

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
The first wave, at the turn of the century, was led by the work of Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, who transformed statistics into a rigorous mathematical discipline used for analysis, not just in science, but in industry and politics as well.

Efficacy of prayer

power of prayerbenefits of prayerhealing power of prayer
He also conducted research on the power of prayer, concluding it had none by its null effects on the longevity of those prayed for.
Various scientific studies have addressed the topic of the efficacy of prayer at least since Francis Galton in 1872.

Correlation and dependence

correlationcorrelatedcorrelations
He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean.
Karl Pearson developed the coefficient from a similar but slightly different idea by Francis Galton.

Genius

high intelligencebrightestgenius-level intellect
The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalised one than viriculture, which I once ventured to use." He also coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
The assessment of intelligence was initiated by Francis Galton (1822–1911) and James McKeen Cattell.

Erasmus Darwin

Lichfield Botanical SocietyDarwin, ErasmusDr Erasmus Darwin
He was Charles Darwin's half-cousin, sharing the common grandparent Erasmus Darwin.
He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

Lexical hypothesis

fundamental lexical hypothesislexicalLexical measures
As an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics (the science of measuring mental faculties) and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality.
Sir Francis Galton was one of the first scientists to apply the lexical hypothesis to the study of personality, stating:

Greatness

Greatpreeminencegreat human beings
The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalised one than viriculture, which I once ventured to use." He also coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
Since the publication of Francis Galton's Hereditary Genius in 1869, and especially with the accelerated development of intelligence tests in the early 1900s, there has been a vast amount of social scientific research published relative to the question of greatness.

Douglas Galton

Douglas Strutt GaltonCaptain Douglas GaltonSir Douglas Galton
He was cousin of Douglas Strutt Galton and half-cousin of Charles Darwin.
He was a cousin of the scientist Francis Galton.

Forensic science

forensicforensicsforensic scientist
He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science.
Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method, but, too old and ill to work on it, Darwin gave the information to his cousin, Francis Galton, who was interested in anthropology.

Weather map

weather chart850 mb pressure surfacemap
As the initiator of scientific meteorology, he devised the first weather map, proposed a theory of anticyclones, and was the first to establish a complete record of short-term climatic phenomena on a European scale.
In England, the scientist Francis Galton heard of this work, as well as the pioneering weather forecasts of Robert Fitzroy.

Fingerprint

fingerprintingfingerprint recognitionfingerprint sensor
He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science.
Francis Galton published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification in his 1892 book Finger Prints.

Samuel Tertius Galton

His father was Samuel Tertius Galton, son of Samuel "John" Galton.
He was the son of Samuel "John" Galton, a prominent member of the scientific Lunar Society, and the father of Francis Galton the eminent Victorian scientist.

Dog whistle

dog whistlesGalton WhistleGalton's whistle
He also invented the Galton Whistle for testing differential hearing ability.
It was invented in 1876 by Francis Galton and is mentioned in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development, in which he describes experiments to test the range of frequencies that could be heard by various animals, such as a house cat.

Synesthesia

synaesthesiasynestheticsynaesthetic
Galton was a polymath who made important contributions in many fields of science, including meteorology (the anti-cyclone and the first popular weather maps), statistics (regression and correlation), psychology (synaesthesia), biology (the nature and mechanism of heredity), and criminology (fingerprints).
Number forms were first documented and named in 1881 by Francis Galton in "The Visions of Sane Persons".

Anticyclone

anticyclonicanti-cycloneanticyclones
As the initiator of scientific meteorology, he devised the first weather map, proposed a theory of anticyclones, and was the first to establish a complete record of short-term climatic phenomena on a European scale. Galton was a polymath who made important contributions in many fields of science, including meteorology (the anti-cyclone and the first popular weather maps), statistics (regression and correlation), psychology (synaesthesia), biology (the nature and mechanism of heredity), and criminology (fingerprints).
Sir Francis Galton first discovered anticyclones in the 1860s.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Galton was a polymath who made important contributions in many fields of science, including meteorology (the anti-cyclone and the first popular weather maps), statistics (regression and correlation), psychology (synaesthesia), biology (the nature and mechanism of heredity), and criminology (fingerprints).
Catell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galton, went on to found the Psychological Corporation.

Bean machine

quincunxGalton boxGalton board
Galton's development of the law of regression to the mean, or reversion, was due to insights from the quincunx ('bean machine') and his studies of sweet peas.
The bean machine, also known as the Galton Board or quincunx, is a device invented by Sir Francis Galton to demonstrate the central limit theorem, in particular that with sufficient sample size the binomial distribution approximates a normal distribution.

King Edward's School, Birmingham

King Edward's SchoolKing Edward VI SchoolKing Edward VI Grammar School
Galton attended King Edward's School, Birmingham, but chafed at the narrow classical curriculum and left at 16.

Biostatistics

biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician
He went on to found the biometric approach to the study of heredity, distinguished by its use of statistical techniques to study continuous traits and population-scale aspects of heredity.
Francis Galton tried to expand Mendel's discoveries with human data and proposed a different model with fractions of the heredity coming from each ancestral composing an infinite series.

Karl Pearson

PearsonPearson, KarlCarl Pearson
This approach was later taken up enthusiastically by Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon; together, they founded the highly influential journal Biometrika in 1901.
Pearson was a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.