Francis Light

Light
Captain Francis Light (c.1740 – 21October1794) was the founder of the British colony of Penang (in modern-day Malaysia) and its capital city of George Town in 1786.wikipedia
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Penang

Pulau PinangPenang, MalaysiaState of Penang
Captain Francis Light (c.1740 – 21October1794) was the founder of the British colony of Penang (in modern-day Malaysia) and its capital city of George Town in 1786.
Penang's modern history began in 1786, upon the establishment of George Town by Francis Light.

George Town, Penang

George TownGeorgetownPenang
Captain Francis Light (c.1740 – 21October1794) was the founder of the British colony of Penang (in modern-day Malaysia) and its capital city of George Town in 1786.
Established as an entrepôt by Francis Light of the British East India Company in 1786, George Town was the first British settlement in Southeast Asia.

William Light

Colonel William LightColonel LightCol. William Light
He and Martina Rozells were the parents of William Light, founder of Adelaide in South Australia.
He was the eldest son of Captain Francis Light, founder of Penang, and Martina Rozells.

Dallinghoo

Light was baptised in Dallinghoo, Suffolk, England on 15December 1740.
Dallinghoo is the birthplace of Francis Light, founder of Penang in Malaysia and father of William Light, the founder of Adelaide in Australia.

HMS Dragon (1760)

HMS ''DragonDragon
He started an apprenticeship in the Royal Navy in 1759 (aged 19) on HMS Captain, before being transferred after a few months to the newly-commissioned HMS Dragon.
Francis Light, founder of Penang, served on HMS Dragon in 1760.

HMS Arrogant (1761)

HMS ''ArrogantArrogant
He was a midshipman on HMS Arrogant in 1761 before ending his service with the navy in 1763.
Francis Light, founder of Penang, was a midshipman on Arrogant in 1761.

HMS Captain (1743)

CaptainHMS ''BuffaloHMS ''Captain
He started an apprenticeship in the Royal Navy in 1759 (aged 19) on HMS Captain, before being transferred after a few months to the newly-commissioned HMS Dragon.
Francis Light, founder of Penang, served for a few months as an apprentice on Captain around 1759.

French ship Mars (1740)

HMS ''MarsMars
Light began his service in the Royal Navy as a surgeon's servant on HMS Mars in February 1754.
Francis Light, founder of Penang, began his Royal Navy service as a surgeon's servant on Mars in February 1754.

Woodbridge School

Woodbridge Grammar SchoolWoodbridge
Taken in by a relative, the nobleman William Negus, he attended Woodbridge Grammar School from 1747.

Penang Island

PenangPrince of Wales IslandPrince of Wales' Island
In 1786, on behalf of the British East India Company, Light leased Penang Island from Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah (who had succeeded Muhammad Jewa in 1778 as leader of Kedah Sultanate), for the price of 6,000 Spanish dollars per annum.
Formerly known as Prince of Wales Island, its city George Town was founded by Francis Light of the British East India Company in 1786.

Phuket Province

PhuketPhuket, ThailandPhuket Island
Setting up a base in Thalang in Siam (also known as Salang and Jung/JunkCeylon, now Phuket province, in Thailand), he traded there, in Aceh (now an Indonesian province) and the Malay Peninsula, learning the local languages.
Before the Burmese attacked Thalang in 1785 during the "Nine Armies' Wars", Francis Light, a British East India Company captain (and later founder of Penang), who had been based on the island for some years, notified the local administration that he had observed Burmese forces preparing to attack.

Abdullah Mukarram Shah of Kedah

Sultan Abdullah Mukarram ShahAbdullah Mukarram Shah
In 1786, on behalf of the British East India Company, Light leased Penang Island from Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah (who had succeeded Muhammad Jewa in 1778 as leader of Kedah Sultanate), for the price of 6,000 Spanish dollars per annum.
Francis Light knows the importance of the Penang Port and Military Bases.

Kedah Sultanate

Sultan of KedahSultanate of KedahSultan
In 1786, on behalf of the British East India Company, Light leased Penang Island from Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah (who had succeeded Muhammad Jewa in 1778 as leader of Kedah Sultanate), for the price of 6,000 Spanish dollars per annum.
In 1770, Francis Light was instructed by the British East India Company (BEIC) to take Penang from Kedah.

Light Street, George Town

Light StreetLight St
Light Street, within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in George Town, is named after him.
It was named after the founder of Penang, Captain Francis Light.

Burmese–Siamese War (1785–86)

Nine Armies War1785–1786Burmese–Siamese War (1785–1786)
Later, in 1785, he warned the island administrators of an imminent Burmese attack.
Chan, wife of the governor, and her sister Mook gathered people to defend Mueang Thalang against the Burmese, after Francis Light, a British East India Company captain passing by the island.

Northam Road, George Town

Northam RoadNortham
Light died from malaria on 21 October 1794 and was buried at the Old Protestant cemetery at Northam Road (now Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah) in George Town.
British administrators, including the founder of Penang, Francis Light, were buried within the Old Protestant Cemetery near the eastern end of Northam Road.

Thao Thep Krasattri and Thao Si Sunthon

Thao Thep Kasattri and Thao Sri SunthonChan and MookChan
While in Thalang he learned to speak and write several languages, including Malay and Thai, and became family friends with Than Phu Ying Chan and her husband, the Governor of Thalang.
Francis Light, founder of Penang, became family friends with Chan and Mook and her husband, the Governor of Thalang.

Fort Cornwallis

Erected in 1936 to celebrate 150 years since George Town was founded, it stands at Fort Cornwallis in George Town.
Captain Francis Light took possession of Penang Island from the Sultan of Kedah in 1786 and built the original fort.

Old Protestant Cemetery, George Town

Old Protestant CemeteryOld Protestant Cemetery in George TownOld Protestant Cemetery in Penang
Light died from malaria on 21 October 1794 and was buried at the Old Protestant cemetery at Northam Road (now Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah) in George Town.
Northam Road Cemetery was the first cemetery to be consecrated after Captain Francis Light founded the Prince of Wales Island Settlement in 1786.

Kuala Kedah

Basing himself in Thalang, he met Martina Rozells, and together they set up a trading post in Kuala Kedah.
William Light, son of Francis Light, founder of Penang, who as Surveyor-General of South Australia planned the city of Adelaide, was born in Kuala Kedah in 1786.

Taksin

King TaksinKing Taksin the GreatTaksin the Great
In 1776–7, Light arranged a large shipment of firearms for the Siamese Kingdom of Thonburi, ruled by Taksin the Great.
In 1776, Francis Light of the Kingdom of Great Britain sent 1,400 flintlocks along with other goods as gifts to Taksin.

Sir John Macpherson, 1st Baronet

John MacphersonSir John MacphersonSir John Macpherson, Bt
Under the administration of Governor-general Sir John Macpherson, Light was entitled Superintendent and put in charge of the settlement, styled Dewa Raja by the Malays, on 1 July 1786; thus marking the beginning of British expansion into the Malay States, and into British colonisation in Southeast Asia.
Macpherson presided over the acquisition and founding of Penang, appointing Francis Light as administrator, in June 1786.

List of governors of Penang

Governor of PenangYang di-Pertua Negeri of PenangResidents-Councillors
In 1786, the island was ceded by the Sultan of Kedah to the East India Company, Francis Light representing the company.

History of Southeast Asia

Southeast Asian historySoutheast Asiahistory
Under the administration of Governor-general Sir John Macpherson, Light was entitled Superintendent and put in charge of the settlement, styled Dewa Raja by the Malays, on 1 July 1786; thus marking the beginning of British expansion into the Malay States, and into British colonisation in Southeast Asia.
Penang Island had been brought to the attention of the Government of India by Francis Light.

Suffolk House, Penang

Suffolk HouseSuffolk Estate
Light's business partners, James Scott and William Fairlie, were the executors of Light's will, and some versions of events have suggested that these two cheated Rozells out of some of her inheritance, namely their family residence and land, the Suffolk Estate.
Located on the banks of the Air Itam ("Black Water") River, the earliest of the two buildings is notable for having served as the residence of Francis Light, the founder of the first British settlement on Penang.