Francis Walsingham

Sir Francis WalsinghamWalsinghamSir '''Francis Walsingham[Sir Francis] WalsinghamF. Walsinghamffrancis WalsinghamSecretary WalsinghamSir Francis Walshingham
Sir Francis Walsingham (c. undefined 1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".wikipedia
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List of ambassadors of the Kingdom of England to France

English ambassador to FranceAmbassador to FranceEnglish ambassador
He served as English ambassador to France in the early 1570s and witnessed the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

Elizabethan era

ElizabethanElizabethan EnglandElizabethan period
Walsingham rose from relative obscurity to become one of the small coterie who directed the Elizabethan state, overseeing foreign, domestic and religious policy.
Another major conspiracy was the Babington Plot — the event which most directly led to Mary's execution, the discovery of which involved a double agent, Gilbert Gifford, acting under the direction of Francis Walsingham, the Queen's highly effective spy master.

Spymaster

spy mastermaster of whisperersspy
undefined 1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".

Edmund Walsingham

Sir Edmund Walsingham
William Walsingham served as a member of the commission that was appointed to investigate the estates of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in 1530, and his elder brother, Sir Edmund Walsingham, was Lieutenant of the Tower of London.

Christopher Carleill

Anne died two years later leaving her son Christopher Carleill in Walsingham's care.
After Alexander's death, Christopher's mother Anne married Francis Walsingham in January 1562; Walsingham was spymaster to Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex

Frances WalsinghamFrancesFrances, Countess of Essex
The following year, she bore him a daughter, Frances.
The daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State, she became the wife of Sir Philip Sidney at age 16.

Bossiney (UK Parliament constituency)

BossineyBossiney (seat 1/2)borough of Bossiney
Walsingham returned to England and through the support of one of his fellow former exiles, Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, he was elected to Elizabeth's first parliament as the member for Bossiney, Cornwall, in 1559.

Chislehurst

Chislehurst Urban DistrictCamden PlaceChiselhurst, Kent
Francis Walsingham was born in or about 1532, probably at Foots Cray, near Chislehurst, Kent.
The Walsingham family, including Christopher Marlowe's patron, Sir Thomas Walsingham and Queen Elizabeth I's spymaster, Francis Walsingham, had a home in Scadbury Park, now a nature reserve in which the ruins of the house can still be seen.

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

St Bartholomew's Day massacreMassacre of St. BartholomewSaint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
He served as English ambassador to France in the early 1570s and witnessed the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. When Catholic opposition to this course in France resulted in the death of Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny and the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, Walsingham's house in Paris became a temporary sanctuary for Protestant refugees, including Philip Sidney.
Elizabeth I of England's ambassador to France at that time, Sir Francis Walsingham, barely escaped with his life.

Secretary of State (England)

Secretary of StateEnglish Secretary of Stateprincipal secretary
undefined 1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".

Ursula St Barbe

Ursula St. BarbeLady Ursula Walsingham
In 1566, Walsingham married Ursula St. Barbe, widow of Sir Richard Worsley, and Walsingham acquired her estates of Appuldurcombe and Carisbrooke Priory on the Isle of Wight.
After his death, she married Sir Francis Walsingham in 1566.

Walter Mildmay

Sir Walter MildmaySir '''Walter Mildmay
Of Francis Walsingham's five sisters, Mary married Sir Walter Mildmay, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer for over 20 years, and Elizabeth married the parliamentarian Peter Wentworth.
As the brother-in-law of Francis Walsingham and the friend of Lord Burghley, he was, however, always heard with attention in the Privy Council, the Star Chamber, and in Parliament.

Lyme Regis (UK Parliament constituency)

Lyme RegisLyme Regis (seat 1/2)Lyme
At the subsequent election in 1563, he was returned for both Lyme Regis, Dorset, another constituency under Bedford's influence, and Banbury, Oxfordshire.

Banbury (UK Parliament constituency)

BanburyBanbury (seat 1/1)Banbury CC
At the subsequent election in 1563, he was returned for both Lyme Regis, Dorset, another constituency under Bedford's influence, and Banbury, Oxfordshire.

University of Padua

PaduaUniversity of PadovaPadua University
He continued his studies in law at the universities of Basel and Padua, where he was elected to the governing body by his fellow students in 1555.

John Carey (courtier)

John CaryJohn CareySir John Carey
After William's death, Joyce married the courtier Sir John Carey in 1538.
Joyce was also the widow of William Walsingham, by whom she had had seven children, including Sir Francis Walsingham.

King's College, Cambridge

King's CollegeKing’s College, CambridgeKing
Francis Walsingham matriculated at King's College, Cambridge, in 1548 with many other Protestants but as an undergraduate of high social status did not sit for a degree.
Historical figures include Francis Walsingham, spymaster to Queen Elizabeth.

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley

William CecilLord BurghleySir William Cecil
By 1569, Walsingham was working with William Cecil to counteract plots against Elizabeth.
His tight control over the finances of the Crown, leadership of the Privy Council, and the creation of a highly capable intelligence service under the direction of Francis Walsingham made him the most important minister for the majority of Elizabeth's reign.

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
undefined 1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".
Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 (which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head) to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.

Lord Privy Seal

Keeper of the Privy SealLord Keeper of the Privy SealPrivy Seal
Smith retired in 1576, leaving Walsingham in effective control of the privy seal, though he was not formally invested as Lord Privy Seal.

John Davis (explorer)

John DavisJohn Davis (English explorer)John Davys
He supported the attempts of John Davis and Martin Frobisher to discover the Northwest Passage and exploit the mineral resources of Labrador, and encouraged Humphrey Gilbert's exploration of Newfoundland.
He began pitching a voyage in search of the Northwest Passage to the queen's secretary Francis Walsingham in 1583.

Philip Sidney

Sir Philip SidneySidneyPhilip Sydney
When Catholic opposition to this course in France resulted in the death of Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny and the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, Walsingham's house in Paris became a temporary sanctuary for Protestant refugees, including Philip Sidney.
In 1583, he married Frances, the 16-year-old daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham.

Edward Stafford (diplomat)

Sir Edward StaffordEdward StaffordEdward Stafford of Grafton
These were years of tension in policy towards France, with Walsingham sceptical of the unpredictable Henry III and distrustful of the English ambassador in Paris, Edward Stafford.
The English counterspy Francis Walsingham was deeply suspicious but was unable to prove anything, and could not act as long as Stafford was protected by Lord Burghley.

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary Queen of ScotsMary StuartQueen Mary
He oversaw operations that penetrated Spanish military preparation, gathered intelligence from across Europe, disrupted a range of plots against Elizabeth and secured the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Elizabeth's principal secretaries, Sir Francis Walsingham and William Cecil, Lord Burghley, watched Mary carefully with the aid of spies placed in her household.

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Earl of LeicesterRobert Dudley, Earl of LeicesterRobert Dudley
A granddaughter born in November 1585 was named Elizabeth after the Queen, who was one of two godparents along with Sidney's uncle, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester.
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was one of Elizabeth's leading statesmen, involved in domestic as well as foreign politics alongside William Cecil and Francis Walsingham.