Francis Xavier

A painting of Saint Francis Xavier, held in the Kobe City Museum, Japan
The castle of the Xavier family was later acquired by the Society of Jesus.
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris
Francisco Xavier taking leave of John III of Portugal for an expedition
Saint Francis Xavier preaching in Goa (1610), by André Reinoso
Conversion of the Paravars by Francis Xavier in South India, in a 19th-century colored lithograph
Voyages of Saint Francis Xavier
The Altar of St. Francis Xavier Parish in Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines. Saint Francis is the principal patron of the town, together with Our Lady of Escalera.
Casket of Saint Francis Xavier in the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Goa, India
Stained glass church window in Béthanie, Hong Kong, of St Francis Xavier baptizing a Chinese man
Fumaroles at Mt. Unzen, Japan
The Vision of St. Francis Xavier, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Statue of Santo Fransiskus Xaverius, at Jesuit Gereja Katedral Santa Perawan Maria Diangkat Ke Surga, in Jakarta, Indonesia
Statue of Saint Francis Xavier, at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, in Superior, Wisconsin, United States
Effigy of Saint Francis Xavier in the Monument to the Discoveries in Lisbon, Portugal
Statue of St. Francis Xavier at St. Xavier's School, Kolkata

Navarrese Catholic missionary and saint who was a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

- Francis Xavier
A painting of Saint Francis Xavier, held in the Kobe City Museum, Japan

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ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits

Society of Jesus

Religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome.

Religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome.

ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits
Ignatius of Loyola
A fresco depicting Ignatius receiving the papal bull from Pope Paul III was created after 1743 by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc.
Jesuits at Akbar's court in India,
Ratio Studiorum, 1598
Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779
Francis Xavier
The Spanish missionary José de Anchieta was, together with Manuel da Nóbrega, the first Jesuit that Ignacio de Loyola sent to America.
Bell made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits in Japan, 1576–1587
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi in the 1607 Chinese publication of Euclid's Elements
Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by Philippe Couplet, Prospero Intorcetta, Christian Herdtrich, and François de Rougemont at Paris in 1687
A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China
Bressani map of 1657 depicting the martyrdom of Jean de Brébeuf
Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó in the 18th century, the first permanent Jesuit mission in Baja California, established by Juan María de Salvatierra in 1697
Main altar of the Jesuit colegio in Tepozotlan, now the Museo Nacional del Virreinato
Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Clavijero (1731–1787) wrote an important history of Mexico.
Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) text on the Americas
Peter Claver ministering to African slaves at Cartagena
Samuel Fritz's 1707 map showing the Amazon and the Orinoco
Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana mission in Paraguay, founded by Jesuits in 1706
Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil
Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil
Visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the Jesuit-run Pontifical Gregorian University
Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope
Jesuit Alfred Delp, member of the Kreisau Circle that operated within Nazi Germany was executed in February 1945
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu.
The Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola
History of the Jesuit missions in India, China and Japan (Luis de Guzmán, 1601).
The Church of the Gesù in Rome, is the mother church of the Jesuits.
Iglesia de La Compañía, Quito, Ecuador, interior with gold leaf
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris, France
Jesuit church, Cuzco, Peru
Colegio de Belén, Havana, "The Palace of Education"
Christ the King Church in the Ateneo de Naga University campus, Naga City, Philippines
Fordham University Church at Rose Hill, Bronx, New York, USA
St. John's Church in Creighton University campus, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Holy Name of Jesus Church in the Loyola University New Orleans campus, New Orleans Louisiana USA
The Church of the Gesu in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, is the school church of Marquette University.
St. Francis Xavier Church, a Jesuit parish church across the street from the Rockhurst University campus, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
St. Francis Xavier College Church in the Saint Louis University campus, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
The Santa Clara University's Mission Church is at the heart of Santa Clara University's historic campus Santa Clara, California, USA.
St. Ignatius Church, a Jesuit parish church in the University of San Francisco campus, San Francisco, California, USA
the Church of the Gesu, Philadelphia is the school church of St. Joseph's Preparatory School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The Church of the Gesu in Frascati, province of Rome, Italy
The Église du Gesù in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, church and cultural venue
Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia
Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba, Argentina
Université de Namur, Belgium
University of the Sinos Valley, Brazil
St. Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Pontifical Xaverian University, Bogota, Colombia
Pontifical Catholic University, Ecuador
University of Ingolstadt, Germany
St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India
St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, India
Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy
Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
Elisabeth University of Music, Hiroshima, Japan.
St. Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
University of Pacific, Peru
Ateneo de Naga University, Philippines
Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea
University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain
Comillas Pontifical University, Spain
Fordham University, New York City, United States
Fairfield University, Bellarmine Hall, Fairfield, Connecticut, United States
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology, Frankfurt, Germany
Georgetown University, Washington DC, United States

In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber, gathered and professed promises of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the pope in matters of mission direction and assignment.

Portrait of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio (1605–1606, Galleria Borghese)

Pope Paul V

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 16 May 1605 to his death.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 16 May 1605 to his death.

Portrait of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio (1605–1606, Galleria Borghese)
Mosaic depicting the arms of Pope Paulus V (Camillo Borghese)
Facade of St. Peter's Basilica
Pope Paul V welcoming the embassy of the Japanese samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1615. Japanese painting, 17th century.
Painting of Emanuele Ne Vunda, ambassador from Alvaro II to Pope Paul V in 1604–1608, Sala dei Corazzieri, Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome, 1615–1616.

He also beatified a number of individuals which included Ignatius Loyola (27 July 1609), Philip Neri (11 May 1615), Teresa of Avila (24 April 1614), Aloysius Gonzaga (10 October 1605), and Francis Xavier (25 October 1619).

Illustration of the ruins of the headquarters of the Goa Inquisition, from L'Homme et La Terre by Élisée Reclus (1905)

Goa Inquisition

Extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in Portuguese India.

Extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in Portuguese India.

Illustration of the ruins of the headquarters of the Goa Inquisition, from L'Homme et La Terre by Élisée Reclus (1905)
The Auto-da-fé procession of the Inquisition at Goa. An annual event to publicly humiliate and punish the heretics, it shows the Chief Inquisitor, Dominican friars, Portuguese soldiers, as well as religious criminals condemned to be burnt in the procession.
An 18th century French sketch showing a man condemned to be burnt alive by the Goa Inquisition. The stake is behind him to his left, the punishment is sketched on his shirt. It was inspired by Charles Dellon's persecution.

While some claim the Inquisition was requested by the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier, no real evidence of this exists, only a letter from Malacca (Malaysia) dated 16 May 1546 to King John III of Portugal, which asked for a king's minister for powers to protect new converts from ill-treatment by Portuguese commandants and a similar letter dated 20 January 1545, over 3 years after he had already left Goa.

Portrait by Guercino, 1622 (oil on canvas, Getty Center, Los Angeles)

Pope Gregory XV

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.

Portrait by Guercino, 1622 (oil on canvas, Getty Center, Los Angeles)
Bust of Pope Gregory XV, 1621 by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Pope Gregory XV with his cardinal-nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone
Portrait of Gregory XV by Guido Reni, ca. 1623
Monument to Pope Gregory XV and cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi by Pierre Le Gros the Younger (c. 1709–1714) Rome, Sant'Ignazio

On 12 March 1622, the pope canonized several saints: Francis Xavier, Ignatius of Loyola, Isidore the Laborer, Philip Neri and Teresa of Ávila.

Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.
The Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built atop the birthplace of the saint.
Ignatius in his armour, in a 16th-century painting
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced asceticism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.
Ignatius as Superior General
Statue of Saint Ignatius in the Church of the Gesù, Rome
Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675
Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius
Portrait by Pieter Paul Rubens
Visions of Ignatius, 1617–18, Peter Paul Rubens
The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times
A page from Spiritual Exercises

Ignatius of Loyola, S.J. (born Íñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; Ignazio Loiolakoa; Ignacio de Loyola; Ignatius de Loyola; c. 23 October 1491 – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits), and became the first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, in Paris, in 1541.

Yamaguchi (city)

Capital city of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

Capital city of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

Rurikō-ji Temple
Yamaguchi Xavier Memorial Church

Yamaguchi has claim to two famous religious sites: the Buddhist temple, Rurikō-ji (瑠璃光寺), with its five-story pagoda, and the Roman Catholic cathedral connected with Saint Francis Xavier whose work was responsible for the introduction of Christianity to Japan in 1550.

Catholic missionaries in Papua New Guinea

Missionary

Member of a religious group which is sent into an area in order to promote its faith or provide services to people, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

Member of a religious group which is sent into an area in order to promote its faith or provide services to people, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

Catholic missionaries in Papua New Guinea
Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260–218 BCE), according to his Edicts
Central Asian Buddhist monk teaching a Chinese monk. Bezeklik, 9th-10th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian, modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of [[:File:BezeklikSogdianMerchants.jpg|the same cave temple]] (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th-8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th-13th century).
Temple of One Thousand Buddhas, in La Boulaye, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy
Lähetyskirkko, a Christian mission church in Ullanlinna, Helsinki, Finland
Village of Christianized Tapuyos Indians, Brazil c. 1820 CE
English missionary John Williams, active in the South Pacific
Jesuits who were martyred by the Araucanian Indians in Elicura in 1612 CE
The first recorded baptism in Alta California
A Christian missionary of the Wisconsin Synod going to the Apache
The missionary ship Duff arriving at Tahiti, c. 1797
David Livingstone preaching from a wagon
The iconic black name tags of missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Mission Dawah is one of the largest contemporary Islamic missionary organizations.
The tombs of historic Islamic missionaries in China, Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun at Mount Lingshan, Quanzhou
The World Islamic Mission's mosque in Oslo, Norway
Jamia Ahmadiyya, Ghana

About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier (1506–1552) as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians, Franciscans, and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, and the Portuguese sent missions into Africa.

Portrait of John attributed to Cristóvão Lopes, copy of a 1552 original by Anthonis Mor

John III of Portugal

The King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1521 until his death in 1557.

The King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1521 until his death in 1557.

Portrait of John attributed to Cristóvão Lopes, copy of a 1552 original by Anthonis Mor
Detail of Prince John from the Triptych of the Infantes; Master of Lourinhã, 1516
King John III portrayed as the patron of the University of Coimbra
Portrait of the King D. João III of Portugal; Cristóvão Lopes, 1552
An auto-da-fé of the Portuguese Inquisition, in the Terreiro do Paço in front of Ribeira Palace in Lisbon.
Map of Portugal and its colonial empire alongside its military and trade outposts, at the height of the reign of King John III of Portugal.
Francis Xavier asking King John III for the Evangalization of Asia; Avelar Rebelo, 1635.
Captaincies of the Governorate General of Brazil

In 1540, after successive appeals to Pope Paul III asking for missionaries for the Portuguese East Indies under the "Padroado" agreement, John III appointed Francis Xavier to take charge as Apostolic Nuncio.

Flying Sand Beach on the eastern coast of Shangchuan Island.

Shangchuan Island

Main island of Chuanshan Archipelago on the southern coast of Guangdong, China.

Main island of Chuanshan Archipelago on the southern coast of Guangdong, China.

Flying Sand Beach on the eastern coast of Shangchuan Island.
Painting of the death of St. Francis Xavier by Francisco Goya.

It is known for having been the place of death of St. Francis Xavier.

The Spring Temple Buddha, a colossal statue of Vairocana, in Lushan County, Henan, China. It has a total height of 153 meters (502 ft), including the 25 meter (82 ft) lotus throne which the statue stands on

Vairocana

Cosmic buddha in Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism.

Cosmic buddha in Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism.

The Spring Temple Buddha, a colossal statue of Vairocana, in Lushan County, Henan, China. It has a total height of 153 meters (502 ft), including the 25 meter (82 ft) lotus throne which the statue stands on
Tang dynasty statue of Vairocana (Dàrì Rúlái) at Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan, China. The statue was completed in the year 676 and is 17.14m high and has 2 m long ears.
Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279 CE) cliff carving of Vairocana (centre), with Manjushri (left), and Samantabhadra (right) among the Dazu Rock Carvings at Baodingshan, Dazu District, Chongqing, China.
Ming dynasty statues of Vairocana (center), flanked on the far left by Amitabha and on the right by Bhaisajyaguru. Projecting tongues from Vairocana's throne are petals that symbolize his radiance in infinite directions.
Ming dynasty (1368-1644) statue of Vairocana in Huayan Temple in Datong, Shanxi, China, one out of a set of statues of the Five Tathāgatas
Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) statue of Vairocana in Shanhua Temple in Datong, Shanxi, China, one out of a set of statues of the Five Tathāgatas
Tang dynasty bronze statue of Vairocana. 8th century.
Copper alloy statue of Vairocana, made in China during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Displayed at the Cantor Center for Visual Arts.
Ming dynasty bronze statue of Vairocana. Displayed at the Buddhism Sculpture Gallery in Aurora Museum, Pudong, Shanghai
Statue of Vairocana, made in China during the Qing dynasty. 19th century. Made of jade, gilt bronze, enamel, pearls and kingfisher feathers. Displayed at the Royal Ontario Museum.
Vairocana statue in Sam Poh Wan Futt Chi, a Chinese Buddhist temple in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia
Shrine to Vairocana in Zhusheng Temple, Hunan, China
Vairocana at Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, Chinatown, Singapore.
Seated iron statue of Vairocana in Borimsa Temple, on Gaji mountain in Jangheung County, South Jeolla, South Korea
A gilt-bronze statue of Vairocana Buddha, one of the National Treasures of South Korea, at Bulguksa.
The Great Buddha of Tōdai-ji, at a Kegon Buddhist temple in Nara, Japan.
Statue of Vairocana by Unkei, National Treasures of Japan, at Enjō-ji
Vairocana with Avalokitesvara and Vajrapani. 9th century, Indonesia.
Multi-headed Sarvavid Vairochana, Central Tibet, circa late 13th - early 14th century

During the initial stages of his mission in Japan, the Catholic missionary Francis Xavier was welcomed by the Shingon monks since he used Dainichi, the Japanese name for Vairocana, to designate the Christian God.