ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits
A painting of Saint Francis Xavier, held in the Kobe City Museum, Japan
Ignatius of Loyola
The castle of the Xavier family was later acquired by the Society of Jesus.
A fresco depicting Ignatius receiving the papal bull from Pope Paul III was created after 1743 by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc.
Jesuits at Akbar's court in India,
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris
Ratio Studiorum, 1598
Francisco Xavier taking leave of John III of Portugal for an expedition
Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779
Saint Francis Xavier preaching in Goa (1610), by André Reinoso
Francis Xavier
Conversion of the Paravars by Francis Xavier in South India, in a 19th-century colored lithograph
The Spanish missionary José de Anchieta was, together with Manuel da Nóbrega, the first Jesuit that Ignacio de Loyola sent to America.
Voyages of Saint Francis Xavier
Bell made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits in Japan, 1576–1587
The Altar of St. Francis Xavier Parish in Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines. Saint Francis is the principal patron of the town, together with Our Lady of Escalera.
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi in the 1607 Chinese publication of Euclid's Elements
Casket of Saint Francis Xavier in the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Goa, India
Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by Philippe Couplet, Prospero Intorcetta, Christian Herdtrich, and François de Rougemont at Paris in 1687
Stained glass church window in Béthanie, Hong Kong, of St Francis Xavier baptizing a Chinese man
A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China
Fumaroles at Mt. Unzen, Japan
Bressani map of 1657 depicting the martyrdom of Jean de Brébeuf
The Vision of St. Francis Xavier, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó in the 18th century, the first permanent Jesuit mission in Baja California, established by Juan María de Salvatierra in 1697
Statue of Santo Fransiskus Xaverius, at Jesuit Gereja Katedral Santa Perawan Maria Diangkat Ke Surga, in Jakarta, Indonesia
Main altar of the Jesuit colegio in Tepozotlan, now the Museo Nacional del Virreinato
Statue of Saint Francis Xavier, at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, in Superior, Wisconsin, United States
Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Clavijero (1731–1787) wrote an important history of Mexico.
Effigy of Saint Francis Xavier in the Monument to the Discoveries in Lisbon, Portugal
Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) text on the Americas
Statue of St. Francis Xavier at St. Xavier's School, Kolkata
Peter Claver ministering to African slaves at Cartagena
Samuel Fritz's 1707 map showing the Amazon and the Orinoco
Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana mission in Paraguay, founded by Jesuits in 1706
Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil
Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil
Visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the Jesuit-run Pontifical Gregorian University
Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope
Jesuit Alfred Delp, member of the Kreisau Circle that operated within Nazi Germany was executed in February 1945
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu.
The Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola
History of the Jesuit missions in India, China and Japan (Luis de Guzmán, 1601).
The Church of the Gesù in Rome, is the mother church of the Jesuits.
Iglesia de La Compañía, Quito, Ecuador, interior with gold leaf
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris, France
Jesuit church, Cuzco, Peru
Colegio de Belén, Havana, "The Palace of Education"
Christ the King Church in the Ateneo de Naga University campus, Naga City, Philippines
Fordham University Church at Rose Hill, Bronx, New York, USA
St. John's Church in Creighton University campus, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Holy Name of Jesus Church in the Loyola University New Orleans campus, New Orleans Louisiana USA
The Church of the Gesu in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, is the school church of Marquette University.
St. Francis Xavier Church, a Jesuit parish church across the street from the Rockhurst University campus, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
St. Francis Xavier College Church in the Saint Louis University campus, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
The Santa Clara University's Mission Church is at the heart of Santa Clara University's historic campus Santa Clara, California, USA.
St. Ignatius Church, a Jesuit parish church in the University of San Francisco campus, San Francisco, California, USA
the Church of the Gesu, Philadelphia is the school church of St. Joseph's Preparatory School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The Church of the Gesu in Frascati, province of Rome, Italy
The Église du Gesù in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, church and cultural venue
Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia
Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba, Argentina
Université de Namur, Belgium
University of the Sinos Valley, Brazil
St. Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Pontifical Xaverian University, Bogota, Colombia
Pontifical Catholic University, Ecuador
University of Ingolstadt, Germany
St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India
St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, India
Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy
Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
Elisabeth University of Music, Hiroshima, Japan.
St. Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
University of Pacific, Peru
Ateneo de Naga University, Philippines
Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea
University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain
Comillas Pontifical University, Spain
Fordham University, New York City, United States
Fairfield University, Bellarmine Hall, Fairfield, Connecticut, United States
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology, Frankfurt, Germany
Georgetown University, Washington DC, United States

Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin: Franciscus Xaverius; Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa; French: François Xavier; Spanish: Francisco Javier; Portuguese: Francisco Xavier; 7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552), venerated as Saint Francis Xavier, was a Navarrese Catholic missionary and saint who was a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

- Francis Xavier

In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber, gathered and professed promises of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the pope in matters of mission direction and assignment.

- Society of Jesus
ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits

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Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.
The Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built atop the birthplace of the saint.
Ignatius in his armour, in a 16th-century painting
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced asceticism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.
Ignatius as Superior General
Statue of Saint Ignatius in the Church of the Gesù, Rome
Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675
Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius
Portrait by Pieter Paul Rubens
Visions of Ignatius, 1617–18, Peter Paul Rubens
The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times
A page from Spiritual Exercises

Ignatius of Loyola, S.J. (born Íñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; Ignazio Loiolakoa; Ignacio de Loyola; Ignatius de Loyola; c. 23 October 1491 – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits), and became the first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, in Paris, in 1541.

Co-founder of the Society of Jesus

Peter Faber

Co-founder of the Society of Jesus
Saint Peter Faber, S.J.

Peter Faber (Pierre Lefevre or Favre, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was a Jesuit priest and theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus, along with Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier.

He was admitted to the Collège Sainte-Barbe, the oldest school in the University of Paris, where he shared his lodgings with Francis Xavier.

Alfonso Salmerón

Alfonso Salmeron

Alfonso Salmerón
Portrait of Alfonso Salmerón, Jesuit, found in the 1602 edition of Salmerón's commentary on the Gospel (Commentarii in Evangelicam Historiam et in Acta Apostolorum).

Alfonso (Alphonsus) Salmerón (8 September 1515 – 13 February 1585) was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits.

Here, through Diego Laynez, he met St. Ignatius of Loyola and with Laynez, St. Peter Faber and St. Francis Xavier, he enlisted as one of the first companions of Loyola in 1534.

Illustration of the ruins of the headquarters of the Goa Inquisition, from L'Homme et La Terre by Élisée Reclus (1905)

Goa Inquisition

Extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in Portuguese India.

Extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in Portuguese India.

Illustration of the ruins of the headquarters of the Goa Inquisition, from L'Homme et La Terre by Élisée Reclus (1905)
The Auto-da-fé procession of the Inquisition at Goa. An annual event to publicly humiliate and punish the heretics, it shows the Chief Inquisitor, Dominican friars, Portuguese soldiers, as well as religious criminals condemned to be burnt in the procession.
An 18th century French sketch showing a man condemned to be burnt alive by the Goa Inquisition. The stake is behind him to his left, the punishment is sketched on his shirt. It was inspired by Charles Dellon's persecution.

While some claim the Inquisition was requested by the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier, no real evidence of this exists, only a letter from Malacca (Malaysia) dated 16 May 1546 to King John III of Portugal, which asked for a king's minister for powers to protect new converts from ill-treatment by Portuguese commandants and a similar letter dated 20 January 1545, over 3 years after he had already left Goa.

Giacomo della Porta's façade, precursor of Baroque

Church of the Gesù

Giacomo della Porta's façade, precursor of Baroque
Dome
Main nave and altar
Detail of ceiling showing the trompe l'oeil effect
Saint Francis Xavier Chapel altar
St. Ignatius Chapel altar
Chapel of Madonna della Strada
Triumph of the Name of Jesus by Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Madonna Della Strada
Religion Overthrowing Heresy and Hatred by Legros
Original 16th-century tabernacle, moved to Thurles in Ireland
Triumph of Faith over Idolatry by Theodon

The Church of the Gesù (Chiesa del Gesù, ) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Catholic religious order.

The larger Saint Francis Xavier Chapel, in the right transept, was designed by Pietro da Cortona, originally commissioned by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Negroni.

Catholic missionaries in Papua New Guinea

Missionary

Member of a religious group which is sent into an area in order to promote its faith or provide services to people, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

Member of a religious group which is sent into an area in order to promote its faith or provide services to people, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

Catholic missionaries in Papua New Guinea
Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260–218 BCE), according to his Edicts
Central Asian Buddhist monk teaching a Chinese monk. Bezeklik, 9th-10th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian, modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of [[:File:BezeklikSogdianMerchants.jpg|the same cave temple]] (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th-8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th-13th century).
Temple of One Thousand Buddhas, in La Boulaye, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy
Lähetyskirkko, a Christian mission church in Ullanlinna, Helsinki, Finland
Village of Christianized Tapuyos Indians, Brazil c. 1820 CE
English missionary John Williams, active in the South Pacific
Jesuits who were martyred by the Araucanian Indians in Elicura in 1612 CE
The first recorded baptism in Alta California
A Christian missionary of the Wisconsin Synod going to the Apache
The missionary ship Duff arriving at Tahiti, c. 1797
David Livingstone preaching from a wagon
The iconic black name tags of missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Mission Dawah is one of the largest contemporary Islamic missionary organizations.
The tombs of historic Islamic missionaries in China, Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun at Mount Lingshan, Quanzhou
The World Islamic Mission's mosque in Oslo, Norway
Jamia Ahmadiyya, Ghana

The word mission originated in 1598 when Jesuits, the members of the Society of Jesus sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning 'act of sending' or mittere, meaning 'to send'.

About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier (1506–1552) as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians, Franciscans, and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, and the Portuguese sent missions into Africa.

Nagasaki

Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

Night view of Nagasaki city seen from Mount Konpira (金比羅山)
A busy street in Nagasaki
A plaque and the Peace Statue at the Nagasaki Peace Park
Monument at the atomic bomb hypocenter in Nagasaki
Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
Sōfuku-ji (National treasure of Japan)
Nagasaki Lantern Festival
Original Shikairō Champon
Portuguese (green) and Spanish (yellow) trade routes to Macao and Nagasaki
Nanban trade. The screen shows foreigners arriving at a shore of Japan. Kano Naizen "Nanbanjin Inauguration" (right), circa. 1600
The Chinese traders at Nagasaki were confined to a walled compound (Tōjin yashiki), circa 1688
Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778
View of Nagasaki in 1870s
View of Dejima island in Nagasaki Bay (from Siebold's Nippon, 1897)
Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki at 11:02 am, August 9, 1945
Torii, Nagasaki, Japan. One-legged torii in the background, October 1945
Modern Nagasaki, Oura Cathedral on a slope, 2005.
Nagasaki view from Glover Garden, 2014

In the meantime, Spanish Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549.

Portuguese India

State of the Portuguese Empire founded six years after the discovery of a sea route to the Indian subcontinent by Vasco da Gama, a subject of the Kingdom of Portugal.

State of the Portuguese Empire founded six years after the discovery of a sea route to the Indian subcontinent by Vasco da Gama, a subject of the Kingdom of Portugal.

Portuguese Fortress of Cochin, in the allied Kingdom of Cochin
Afonso de Albuquerque, second Portuguese governor of India
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese Empire in the East, with its capital in Goa, was then often styled in Europe as the "Rome of the East", it included possessions (subjected tracts of land with a certain degree of autonomy) in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Pacific
A Portuguese nobleman riding on a horse from "Itinerario, voyage, ofte Schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien", Amsterdam, 1596
Portuguese Goa in 1600
Portuguese fortress of Bassein, capital of the North Province
Portuguese and other European settlements in India
District of Portuguese Diu
Remnants of St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri in the Quilon area, Malabar region
The Conquistas of Goa. Red: Velhas Conquistas (1510-1546). Cream: Novas Conquistas (1763-1788)
Coat of arms of Portuguese Goa in 1596
Marketplace in Goa, as depicted in Jan Huygen van Linschotens Itinerarium
Portugal was the first European nation to establish trade routes with Japan. A significant portion of the crew on Portuguese ships were Indian Christians.
Portuguese gold coin struck in Goa during the reign of King Manuel 1510-1521
Portuguese riding a palanquin
Mughal depiction of a Portuguese nobleman
Proposed flag for Portuguese India
Indo-Portuguese illustration of a Portuguese nobleman and Christian Indian women, from the Códice Casanatense.
18th century Indo-Portuguese cabinet
Indo-Portuguese cabinet
Indo-Portuguese writing cabinet
Indo-Portuguese furniture
Indo-Portuguese pistol
17th century Indo-Portuguese Christian ivory.
20 Portuguese bazarucos from 1799, reverse.
20 Portuguese bazarucos from 1799, obverse.
1866 1/8 tanga.
1 Portuguese India rupia, 1882.
1947 escudo coin.
1959 100 escudos.
Late 19th century and early 20th century Portuguese rupias
60 Portuguese India centavos, 1959.
Indo-Portuguese house
Portuguese villa
Goa Cathedral
he church of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception in Panaji (Goa, India).
Old Goa,Church of Lady of Rosary
Bom Jesus Basilica, Goa.
House in Goa.
House in Goa.

On 16 May 1546, the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier requested the institution of the Goa Inquisition for the "Old Christians" and "New Christians", in a letter to John III of Portugal.

By order of the Marquis de Pombal, the Jesuits were expelled from Portugal's territories in 1759.

Painted portrait of Eusebio Kino, ca. 1700

Eusebio Kino

Painted portrait of Eusebio Kino, ca. 1700
Written historic accounts of the Casa Grande in Coolidge, Arizona, begin with the journal entries of Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino when he visited the ruins in 1694.
This map, which was hand-colored by cartographer Nicholas de Fer, was originally created by Kino in 1696. It is called California or New Carolina: Place of Apostolic Works of Society of Jesus at the Septentrional America.
Crypt housing the remains of Father Kino in Magdalena de Kino.
Equestrian statue of Father Kino in his birthplace of Segno, Northern Italy
Equestrian statue of Father Kino in front of the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix, Arizona
Bronze sculpture by Suzanne Silvercruys

Eusebio Francisco Kino (Eusebio Francesco Chini, Eusebio Francisco Kino; 10 August 1645 – 15 March 1711), often referred to as Father Kino, was a Tyrolean Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer born in the Territory of the Bishopric of Trent, then part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1665, after his recovery from an illness, as part of a vow fulfillment, he adopted Francesco as second name, for devotion to Saint Francis Xavier.

Counter-Reformation

The period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolution.

The period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolution.

A copy of the Sixtine Vulgate, the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible printed in 1590 after many of the Council of Trent's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship
Confutatio Augustana (left) and Confessio Augustana (right) being presented to Charles V
A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving
This 1711 illustration for the Index Librorum Prohibitorum depicts the Holy Ghost supplying the book burning fire.
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Peter Paul Rubens was the great Flemish artist of the Counter-Reformation. He painted Adoration of the Magi in 1624.
Matanzas Inlet, Florida, where the survivors were killed
Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620)
End of the Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1648)
Johann Michael Rottmayr (1729): The Catholic faith defeats Protestant heresies; part of a fresco inside Karlskirche in Vienna

This was followed by the Somaschi Fathers in 1528, the Barnabites in 1530, the Ursulines in 1535, the Jesuits, canonically recognised in 1540, the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca in 1583, the Camillians in 1584, the Adorno Fathers in 1588, and finally the Piarists in 1621.

Francis Xavier (1506–1552)