A report on Francisco Franco

His parents with Francisco in arms, on the day of his baptism on 17 December 1892
Francisco and his brother Ramón in North Africa, 1925
Franco in 1930
Twenty-six Republicans executed by Francoists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, buried in a mass grave
Franco and other rebel commanders during the Civil War, c. 1936–1939
Franco and Hitler depicted on a poster celebrating the Condor Legion, German military units that supported the Spanish Nationalists during the Civil War
Francoist demonstration in Salamanca (1937) with the paraders carrying banners with the portrait of Franco and the populace giving the Roman salute.
Franco arriving in San Sebastián in 1939, escorted by the Moorish Guard
Front row in order from left to right: Karl Wolff, Heinrich Himmler, Franco and Spain's Foreign Minister Serrano Súñer in Madrid, October 1940
Franco and Adolf Hitler in Meeting at Hendaye, 1940
Franco in Reus, 1940
Franco visits Tolosa, 1948.
Lluís Companys, president of Catalonia under the Republic, who was executed by Franco in 1940
1963 Spanish peseta coin with an image of Franco and lettering reading: "Francisco Franco, Leader of Spain, by the grace of God"
Franco with Prince Juan Carlos in 1969
Carlos Arias Navarro and Franco at his residence in October 1975, around one week before he fell into an irreversible coma
In 2019 Franco's body was removed from the monument of Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos, where it had lain since his funeral in 1975.
Group of far-right sympathizers giving the fascist salute before the empty plinth from which the equestrian statue of Franco in Madrid had been recently removed in March 2005
Sign in Santa Cruz de Tenerife for a street bearing Franco's name which was renamed in 2008 Rambla de Santa Cruz.

Spanish general who led the Nationalist forces in overthrowing the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and thereafter ruled over Spain from 1939 to 1975 as a dictator, assuming the title Caudillo.

- Francisco Franco

202 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Granollers after being bombed by Nationalists aviation in 1938; Bombing of an airfield in Spanish Morocco; Republican soldiers at the siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; The Lincoln Battalion

Spanish Civil War

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Civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists.

Civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists.

Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Granollers after being bombed by Nationalists aviation in 1938; Bombing of an airfield in Spanish Morocco; Republican soldiers at the siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; The Lincoln Battalion
On 12 April 1931, the Republicans won the elections and the Spanish Second Republic was proclaimed two days later. King Alfonso XIII went into exile.
General Emilio Mola was the chief planner of the coup.
Murder of prominent parliamentary conservative José Calvo Sotelo was a major catalyst for the coup.
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Republican and Nationalist conscription age limits
Republican forces during the battle of Irún in 1936
Manuel Azaña was the intellectual leader of the Second Republic and headman of the Republican side during most of the Civil War.
Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936
Militias of the Falange in Saragossa, October 1936
Italian troops manning a 10 cm howitzer at Guadalajara, 1937
German officer from the Condor Legion instructing Nationalist infantry soldiers, Ávila
Condor Legion Junkers Ju 87
The Etkar André battalion of the International Brigades
Polish volunteers in the International Brigades
Review of Soviet armored fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican People's Army during the Spanish Civil War
Loire 46 of the Spanish Republican Air Force.
Map showing Spain in September 1936:
Surrender of Republican soldiers in the Somosierra area, 1936
Leonese anarchist Buenaventura Durruti died after he arrived in Madrid to reinforce the morale of the Republicans during an unsuccessful Francoist siege in Madrid. His funeral, headed (in the image) by Lluís Companys, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, and Joan García i Oliver, Minister of Justice of the Spanish Republic, was in Barcelona.
Map showing Spain in October 1937:
Ruins of Guernica
Map showing Spain in July 1938:
Map showing Spain in February 1939:
Franco arriving in San Sebastian in 1939
Franco declares the end of the war, though small pockets of Republicans fought on.
Children preparing for evacuation, some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute.
one-peseta Nationalist note, 1937
one-peseta Republican note, 1937
Women pleading with Nationalists for the lives of prisoners, Constantina, 1936
Twenty-six republicans were assassinated by Franco's Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave is located at the small town of Estépar, in Burgos Province. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.
Victims of the Paracuellos massacre committed by the Republicans. The Republicans committed many acts of torture, murder, and war crimes throughout the war known as the Red Terror (Spain).
Spanish Civil War grave sites. Location of known burial places. Colors refer to the type of intervention that has been carried out. Green: No Interventions Undertaken so far. White: Missing grave. Yellow: Transferred to the Valle de los Caídos. Red: Fully or Partially Exhumed. Blue star: Valle de los Caídos. Source: Ministry of Justice of Spain
Nationalist SM.81 aircraft bomb Madrid in late November 1936.
Children take refuge during the Francoist bombing over Madrid (1936–1937). In spite of that Republicans managed to repulse this siege.
Bombing in Barcelona, 1938
The Puente Nuevo bridge, Ronda. Both Nationalists and Republicans are claimed to have thrown prisoners from the bridge to their deaths in the canyon.
"Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen. The photograph in the London Daily Mail had the caption "Spanish Reds' war on religion".
Two women and a man posing at the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo, 1936
Women from FAI during the Spanish Social Revolution.
In Catalonia, a square near the Barcelona waterfront named Plaça de George Orwell.
Tribute and plaque in memory of murdered or persecuted teachers, Navarre, 1936 and later
Spanish children in exile in Mexico

The Popular Front fought against an insurrection by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and traditionalists, led by a military junta among whom General Francisco Franco quickly achieved a preponderant role.

Francoist Spain

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Territories and colonies of the Spanish State:
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Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler in Meeting at Hendaye, 1940
Franco and U.S. President Gerald Ford riding in a ceremonial parade in Madrid, 1975
Armed forces in San Sebastián, 1942
Francoist demonstration in Salamanca in 1937
Falangist celebration in 1941
Franco with Catholic Church dignitaries in 1946
Franco visiting the Basilica of Saint Mary of the Chorus in San Sebastián
Franco and his wife, Carmen Polo, in 1968
Spanish anti-communist volunteer forces of the Blue Division entrain at San Sebastián, 1942
INC emblem.
By the decision of King Juan Carlos I, Franco was entombed in the monument of Valle de los Caídos, until his body was moved in October 2019.
Equestrian statue of Franco in the Plaza del Ayuntamiento of Santander, taken down in late 2008
State flag (July 17, 1936–August 29, 1936)
State flag (August 30, 1936–1938)
State flag (1938–1945)
Civil flag (1936–1975)
Flag of the Falange Movement
Flag of the Traditionalist Movement (Carlism)
Standard of Francisco Franco (1940–1975)
Royal standard of the Prince of Spain (1969–1975)
Coat of arms (1936–1938)
Coat of arms (1938–1945)
Simplified version of the coat of arms to promote bureaucratic aims. It was used on stamps, lottery tickets, identity documents, and buildings. A popular name for it was "coat of arms of the Eagle" (1938–1945).
Coat of arms (1945–1977)
Coat of arms of Francisco Franco (1940–1975)
Coat of arms of the Prince of Spain (1969–1975)

Francoist Spain (España franquista), or the Francoist dictatorship (dictadura franquista), was the period of Spanish history between 1939 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain with the title Caudillo.

Second Spanish Republic

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The form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939.

The form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939.

European borders of the Second Spanish Republic, as well as the Spanish protectorate in Morocco
Allegory of the Spanish Republic, displaying republican symbolism such as the Phrygian cap and the motto Libertad, Igualdad, Fraternidad
European borders of the Second Spanish Republic, as well as the Spanish protectorate in Morocco
Workers arrested by the Guardia Civil ans Guardia de Asalto during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934
Column of Guardias Civiles during the 1934 Asturian Revolution, Brañosera
Image from the newspaper LA VOZ showing the leaders of the popular front elected in the Madrid constituency.
Calvo Sotelo dressed in the uniform of the Cuerpo de Abogados del Estado.
General José Sanjurjo Sacanell, Marquis of the Rif
Victims of the Paracuellos massacre committed by the Republicans. The Republicans committed many acts of torture, murder, and war crimes throughout the war known as the Red Terror (Spain).
Twenty-six republicans executed by fascists who belonged to Franco's Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave was placed at the small town named Estépar, in Burgos, northern Spain. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.
International Brigadiers volunteered on the side of the Republic. The photo shows members of the XI International Brigade on a T-26 tank during the Battle of Belchite (August–September 1937).

The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of King Alfonso XIII, and was dissolved on 1 April 1939 after surrendering in the Spanish Civil War to the Nationalists led by General Francisco Franco.

Falange

Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War)

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Major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.

Major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.

Falange
CEDA
Carlists
Bank note issued by the Nationalist government in October 1937 with the coat of arms of Alfonso XIII
Fascist Italy
Nazi Germany
Portuguese Republic
Vatican City

After the death of the faction's early leaders, General Francisco Franco, one of the members of the 1936 coup, would head the Nationalists throughout most of the war and emerge as the dictator of Spain until his death in 1975.

Republican soldiers and Assault Guards fighting in Barcelona during the uprising.

Spanish coup of July 1936

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Nationalist and military uprising that was designed to overthrow the Spanish Second Republic but precipitated the Spanish Civil War; Nationalists fought against Republicans for control of Spain.

Nationalist and military uprising that was designed to overthrow the Spanish Second Republic but precipitated the Spanish Civil War; Nationalists fought against Republicans for control of Spain.

Republican soldiers and Assault Guards fighting in Barcelona during the uprising.
Republican soldiers and Assault Guards fighting in Barcelona during the uprising.
Map showing Spain in July 1936, except for Spanish Morocco and the Canary Islands:
Area under Nationalist control
Area under Republican control

Although drawn out, the resulting war would ultimately lead to one of its leaders, Francisco Franco, becoming ruler of Spain as a dictator.

Juan Carlos in January 2013

Juan Carlos I

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Member of the Spanish royal family who reigned as King of Spain from 22 November 1975 until his abdication on 19 June 2014.

Member of the Spanish royal family who reigned as King of Spain from 22 November 1975 until his abdication on 19 June 2014.

Juan Carlos in January 2013
Juan Carlos and Alfonso with their father Juan in between (1950)
Juan Carlos and Sofía in August 1962 at the White House's Oval Office, along with the Spanish Ambassador Antonio Garrigues and US President John F. Kennedy
Juan Carlos and Francisco Franco in 1969
Proclamation as king at the Palacio de las Cortes on 22 November 1975
Royal trips of King Juan Carlos I from 1975 until 2010
Juan Carlos in 1977
5000 Spanish peseta note with the image of King Juan Carlos
Meeting of Juan Carlos and Sofía with Vladimir Putin and Lyudmila Putina in 2000 during an official state visit of the latter to Spain
Juan Carlos with Estonian Prime Minister Andrus Ansip in Tallinn, Estonia in May 2009
2007 Ibero-American Summit in Santiago de Chile
Juan Carlos I next to prime minister Mariano Rajoy, who is seen countersigning the organic law for abdication (18 June 2014).
Republican demonstration in the Puerta del Sol on the day that Juan Carlos announced his decision to abdicate
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Satirical mural in Benimaclet, València, about Juan Carlos's exile to Abu Dhabi. (The caption ‘Juancar? Who is Juancar? My name is Guy Incognito’, is a reference to an episode of The Simpsons)
Juan Carlos, Sofía and their three children in 1975
Royal monogram

Francisco Franco took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, yet in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor.

Twenty-six republicans executed by Francoists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War

White Terror (Spain)

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Twenty-six republicans executed by Francoists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War
The end of the monarchy of King Alfonso XIII (r. 1886–1931) precipitated Gen. Francisco Franco's reactionary coup d'état (17 July 1936) against the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), which launched the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)
The ruins of Guernica, destroyed by the Condor Legion of the German Luftwaffe
Spanish Civil War grave sites. Location of known burial places. Colors refer to the type of intervention that has been carried out. Green: No Interventions Undertaken so far. White: Missing grave. Yellow: Transferred to the Valle de los Caídos. Red: Fully or Partially Exhumed. Blue star: Valle de los Caídos. Source: Ministry of Justice of Spain
Lluís Companys, second president of the restored Generalitat de Catalunya, was captured by the Gestapo and executed by the Francoists.
Tomb of Lluís Companys at Fossar de la Pedrera.
Tanks of U.S. 11th Armored Division entering the Mauthausen concentration camp; banner in Spanish reads "Antifascist Spaniards greet the forces of liberation". The photo was taken on 6 May 1945
Memorial plaque in Pamplona with the list of teachers murdered or cracked down by the Spanish Nationalists, 1936 and later

In the history of Spain, the White Terror (Terror Blanco; also known as the Francoist Repression, la Represión franquista) describes the political repression, including executions and rapes, which were carried out by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), as well as during the first nine years of the regime of General Francisco Franco.

Unification in infantile propaganda drawing, 1937

Unification Decree (Spain, 1937)

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Unification in infantile propaganda drawing, 1937
Emilio Mola, head of the military conspiracy
Miguel Cabanellas, head of Junta de Defensa
Falangist militia
Carlist militia Requetés on parade, San Sebastián 1936
Members of Falangist female branch, Sección Femenina
Members of Carlist female section, Margaritas
Members of Falangist infantile section, Flechas
members of Carlist infantile section, Pelayos
Falangist standard
Carlist standard
Francisco Franco in 1940
Ramón Serrano Súñer
Carlist and Falangist leaders on common parade
Conde Rodezno
Fernández-Cuesta
Franco speaking, late 1940s; note Falangist and Carlist symbols

The Unification Decree was a political measure adopted by Francisco Franco in his capacity of Head of State of Nationalist Spain on April 19, 1937.

FET y de las JONS

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The sole legal party of the Francoist regime in Spain.

The sole legal party of the Francoist regime in Spain.

Visit of Franco to Tolosa in 1948. The podium is decorated with the yoke and arrows, the symbol of the Sindicato Vertical and the Cross of Burgundy.

It was created by General Francisco Franco in 1937 as a merger of the fascist Falange Española de las JONS (FE de las JONS) with of the monarchist neoabsolutist and ultracatholic Traditionalist Communion belonging to the Carlist movement.

Nazi Germany

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The German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a dictatorship.

The German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a dictatorship.

Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II (late 1942):
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Adolf Hitler became Germany's head of state, with the title of Führer und Reichskanzler, in 1934.
Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II (late 1942):
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While the traditional German states were not formally abolished (excluding Lübeck in 1937), their constitutional rights and sovereignty were eroded and ultimately ended. Prussia was already under federal administration when Hitler came to power, providing a model for the process.
Joseph Goebbels, Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
A Nazi propaganda poster proclaiming that Danzig is German
German soldiers march near the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, 14 June 1940
Death and destruction during the Battle of Stalingrad, October 1942
German refugees in Bedburg, near Kleve, 19 February 1945
Map of the Greater German Reich with administrative divisions set by the Nazi Party, 1944
Public execution of 54 Poles in Rożki, Masovian Voivodeship (near Radom), German-occupied Poland, 1942
Heinrich Himmler, Hitler and Viktor Lutze perform the Nazi salute at the Nuremberg Rally, September 1934
Hitler, Göring, Goebbels and Rudolf Hess during a military parade in 1933
Chart showing the pseudo-scientific racial divisions used in the racial policies of Nazi Germany
A meeting of the four jurists who imposed Nazi ideology on the legal system of Germany (left to right: Roland Freisler, Franz Schlegelberger, Otto Georg Thierack, and Curt Rothenberger)
A column of tanks and other armoured vehicles of the Panzerwaffe near Stalingrad, 1942
IG Farben synthetic oil plant under construction at Buna Werke (1941). This plant was part of the complex at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Autobahn, late 1930s
(from left) Hitler; Robert Ley, head of the German Labour Front; Ferdinand Porsche, armaments manufacturer; and Hermann Göring, head of the Four Year Plan (1942)
Woman with Ostarbeiter badge at the IG Farben plant in Auschwitz
German loot stored at Schlosskirche Ellingen, Bavaria (April 1945)
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, April 1933. The posters say "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!"
Poster from the Nazi Party's Office of Racial Policy: "60 000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too."
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the Buchenwald concentration camp liberated by the U.S. Army, 1945
Soviet prisoners of war in Mauthausen
The Nazi salute in school (1934): children were indoctrinated at an early age.
Young women of the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) practising gymnastics in 1941
Statues representing the ideal body were erected in the streets of Berlin for the 1936 Summer Olympics.
Prisoner barracks at Dachau Concentration Camp, where the Nazis established a dedicated clergy barracks for clerical opponents of the regime in 1940
General Erich Hoepner at the Volksgerichtshof in 1944
A Nazi book burning on 10 May 1933 in Berlin, as books by Jewish and leftist authors are burned
Plans for Berlin called for the Volkshalle (People's Hall) and a triumphal arch to be built at either end of a wide boulevard.
Leni Riefenstahl (behind cameraman) at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials

Hitler sent military supplies and assistance to the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, which began in July 1936.