Francisco Franco

FrancoGeneral FrancoFrancoistGeneral Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco BahamondeFrancoistsGeneralissimo FrancoNationalistdictatorshipanti-Francoist
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.wikipedia
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Spanish Civil War

Civil WarSpaincivil war in Spain
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.

Unification Decree (Spain, 1937)

Unification Decreeunification1937 Unification Decree
In 1937, Franco merged all parties on the Nationalist side into a single legal party, the FET y de las JONS.
The Unification Decree was a political measure adopted by Francisco Franco in his capacity of Head of State of Nationalist Spain on April 19, 1937.

Ferrol, Spain

FerrolEl FerrolFerrol, Galicia
Franco was born in Ferrol, Spain, as the son of upper-class parents with strong connections to the Spanish Navy.
As the birthplace of the dictator Francisco Franco in 1892, the municipality was officially named after him as "El Ferrol del Caudillo" from September 1938 to December 1982.

Second Spanish Republic

Spanish RepublicRepublicanSecond Republic
As a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the democratic secular republic in 1931.
The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco.

Caudillo

caudilloscaudillismocaudillism
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
However, Spain's General Francisco Franco (1936–1975) proudly took the title as his own during and after his military overthrow of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), in parallel to the German and Italian equivalents of the same period: Führer and Duce.

White Terror (Spain)

White TerrorFrancoist repressionSpain
The victory extended his dictatorship to the whole country and was followed by a period of repression of political opponents and dissenters, with the result that between 30,000 and 50,000 died through the use of forced labor and executions in concentration camps.
In the history of Spain, the White Terror (also known as the Francoist Repression, la Represión franquista) was the series of assassinations that were carried out by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), and the first nine years of the régime of General Francisco Franco.

Spanish coup of July 1936

coup of July 1936July 1936 coupcoup
When the leftist Popular Front won the 1936 elections, Franco joined other Generals who launched a coup the same year, intending to overthrow the republic.
Although drawn out, the resulting war would ultimately lead to one of its leaders, Francisco Franco, becoming ruler of Spain.

Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War)

NationalistsNationalistNationalist faction
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. In 1937, Franco merged all parties on the Nationalist side into a single legal party, the FET y de las JONS.
One of the main leaders (Caudillo) of the 1936 coup, General Francisco Franco, would lead this faction throughout the war and later would become the dictator of Spain from 1939 to 1975.

Spain during World War II

Spain in World War IISpainOperation Ilona
During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but supported the Axis — whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War — in various ways.
During World War II the Spanish State under Francisco Franco espoused neutrality as its official wartime policy.

Spanish Republican Army

Republican ArmyArmyPeople's Republican Army
He nevertheless continued his position in the Republican Army and in 1934 led the brutal suppression of the miners' revolutionary strike in Asturias, which sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right in the country.
In July 1936, five years after the proclamation of the republic, a section of the Spanish Republican Army in Spanish Morocco rebelled under the orders of General Franco.

Francoist concentration camps

concentration campsconcentration campCampos de Concentración
The victory extended his dictatorship to the whole country and was followed by a period of repression of political opponents and dissenters, with the result that between 30,000 and 50,000 died through the use of forced labor and executions in concentration camps.
The first concentration camp was created by Francisco Franco on July 20 1936 and was located in the castle of El Hecho in Ceuta.

Spanish transition to democracy

transition to democracySpanish TransitionTransition
Juan Carlos led the Spanish transition to democracy.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia, ), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición, ), or the Spanish transition (Transición española, ) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.

Asturian miners' strike of 1934

Asturian miners' strike1934 Revolution of AsturiasAsturian Revolution
He nevertheless continued his position in the Republican Army and in 1934 led the brutal suppression of the miners' revolutionary strike in Asturias, which sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right in the country.
Francisco Franco controlled the movement of the troops, aircraft, warships and armoured trains used in the crushing of the revolution.

Luis Carrero Blanco

Carrero BlancoAdmiral Carrero BlancoLuís Carrero Blanco
The Francoist dictatorship continued to soften over time and Luis Carrero Blanco became Franco's éminence grise, controlling the day-to-day operations of the government: this increased when Franco began showing symptoms of Parkinson's disease in the 1960s.
Carrero Blanco, a long-time confidant and right-hand man of Francisco Franco, was one of the most prominent figures in the Francoist dictatorship's power structure, holding throughout his career a number of high-ranking offices such as those of Undersecretary of the Prime Minister's Office and Deputy Prime Minister.

Opus Dei and politics

Opus DeiOpus Dei in Spain
After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the "Spanish miracle", abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to the technocrats of the Opus Dei, leading to tremendous economic growth.
There were accusations that the Catholic personal prelature of Opus Dei has had links with far-right governments worldwide, including Franco's and Hitler's regimes.

José Millán Astray

Millán AstrayJose Millan AstrayJosé Millán-Astray
In 1920, Lieutenant Colonel José Millán Astray, a histrionic but charismatic officer, founded the Spanish Foreign Legion, on similar lines to the French Foreign Legion.
José Millán-Astray y Terreros (July 5, 1879 – January 1, 1954) was a Spanish soldier, the founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion, and a major early figure of Francisco Franco's Spanish State.

Asturias

Principality of AsturiasAsturianAsturians
He nevertheless continued his position in the Republican Army and in 1934 led the brutal suppression of the miners' revolutionary strike in Asturias, which sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right in the country.
Troops under the command of a then unknown general named Francisco Franco Bahamonde were brought from Spanish Morocco to suppress the revolt.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but supported the Axis — whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War — in various ways.
When civil war broke out in Spain, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist rebels, led by General Francisco Franco.

Law of Succession to the Headship of the State

Law of SuccessionSuccession law
Through the power to appoint a king, granted to him by the 1947 Law of Succession to the Headship of the State, he restored the monarchy before his death, appointing Juan Carlos as his successor and king of Spain.
It established provisions for the restoration of the Monarchy of Spain (after being abolished by the Second Spanish Republic in 1931), appointed Francisco Franco as the Head of State of Spain for life, and provided that his successor would be proposed by Franco himself with the title of King or Regent of the Kingdom, but that would have to be approved by the Cortes Españolas.

Ramón Franco

RamónRamon FrancoRamón Franco Bahamonde
The young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás (Ferrol, 1891–1977) and Ramón, and his two sisters, María del Pilar (Ferrol, 1894 – Madrid, 1989), and María de la Paz (Ferrol, 1899 – Ferrol, 1903).
Ramón Franco Bahamonde (born 2 February 1896 in the naval station of Ferrol in Galicia, Spain –28 October 1938), was a Spanish pioneer of aviation, a political figure and brother of later caudillo Francisco Franco.

Movimiento Nacional

National MovementMovimientoFranco's first government
He nurtured a cult of personality and the Movimiento Nacional became the only channel of participation in Spanish public life.
The National Movement was led by Francisco Franco, titled Jefe del Movimiento (English: Chief of the Movement), assisted by a "General Minister-Secretary of the Movement".

1936 Spanish general election

19361936 elections1936 election
When the leftist Popular Front won the 1936 elections, Franco joined other Generals who launched a coup the same year, intending to overthrow the republic.
Sanjurjo and Franco ultimately brought about the end of parliamentary democracy in Spain until the 1977 general election.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but supported the Axis — whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War — in various ways.
Hitler sent military supplies and assistance to the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, which began in July 1936.

National Catholicism

national-catholicCatholic-NationalistFrancoist
His dictatorial style proved very adaptable, which could introduce social and economic reform, and the only consistent points in Franco's long rule were above all authoritarianism, Spanish nationalism, national Catholicism, anti-Freemasonry, anti-anarchism and anti-communism.
National Catholicism (Spanish: nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the political system with which dictator Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1939 and 1975.

José Sanjurjo

SanjurjoGeneral SanjurjoJose Sanjurjo
Franco avoided involvement in José Sanjurjo's attempted coup that year, and even wrote a hostile letter to Sanjurjo expressing his anger over the attempt.
He was killed in an air crash on the third day of the rebellion, when he was flying in from Portugal, to take up his position in command of Franco and Mola.