Franjo Hanaman

Franjo Hanaman (seated) and Alexander Just
Right an Just–Hanaman light-bulb, Budapest, 1906.

Croatian inventor, engineer, and chemist, who gained world recognition for inventing the world's first applied electric light-bulb with a metal filament (tungsten) with his assistant Alexander Just, independently of his contemporaries.

- Franjo Hanaman

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Incandescent light bulb

Electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.

A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.
A scanning electron microscope image of the tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb
Elaborate light in Denver, Colorado
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
Alexander Lodygin on 1951 Soviet postal stamp
Carbon filament lamps, showing darkening of bulb
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
Historical plaque at Underhill, the first house to be lit by electric lights
Comparison of Edison, Maxim, and Swan bulbs, 1885
Edison carbon filament lamps, early 1880s
Thomas Alva Edison
by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, 27 January 1880
Hanaman (left) and Just (right), the inventors of the tungsten bulbs
Hungarian advertising of the Tungsram-bulb from 1906. This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon. The inscription reads: wire lamp with a drawn wire – indestructible.
Spectrum of an incandescent lamp at 2200 K, showing most of its emission as invisible infrared light.
Xenon halogen lamp with an E27 base, which can replace a non-halogen bulb
Thermal image of an incandescent bulb. 22–175 °C = 71–347 °F.
Spectral power distribution of a 25 W incandescent light bulb.
Destruction of a lamp filament due to air penetration
The 1902 tantalum filament light bulb was the first one to have a metal filament. This one is from 1908.
Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp. The two ring-shaped structures left and right are filament supports.
Incandescent light bulbs come in a range of shapes and sizes.
A package of four 60-watt light bulbs
Left to right: MR16 with GU10 base, MR16 with GU5.3 base, MR11 with GU4 or GZ4 base
40-watt light bulbs with standard E10, E14 and E27 Edison screw base
The double-contact bayonet cap on an incandescent bulb
The Centennial Light is the longest-lasting light bulb in the world.
Various lighting spectra as viewed in a diffraction grating. Upper left: fluorescent lamp, upper right: incandescent bulb, lower left: white LED, lower right: candle flame.

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No.

Alexander Just

Austro-Hungarian chemist and inventor.

Alexander Just
A Just–Hanaman light-bulb, Budapest, 1906
Alexander Just as a soldier during World War I

In 1904 with Austro-Hungarian Franjo Hanaman he was the first to develop and patent an incandescent light bulb with a tungsten filament, made by extruding a paste of tungsten powder and a carbonaceous binder to produce a fine thread, then removing the carbon by heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and water vapors.

List of people from Croatia

List of prominent individuals who are or were Croatian citizens or of Croatian ancestry.

Flag of Croatia (Zastava Hrvatske)

Franjo Hannaman – inventor, engineer

Tungsram

Known for their light bulbs and electronics.

Hungarian advertising of the Tungsram-bulb from 1906. This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon. The inscription reads: wire lamp with a drawn wire – indestructible
Incandescent light bulbs with carbon filaments (left) and the modern tungsten bulb (right)
Tungsram MR-X radio transmitter tube for audio communication (1917)
Tungsram H2 radio transmitter tube prototype 1916
Tungsram searchlight for air defense (1914)
Tungsram television prototype in 1937
Tungsram commercial vacuum tubes from the 1970s
Tungsram vacuum tubes
Tungsram vacuum tubes
The factory in Budapest in 1920
Former Headquarter of the United Lightbulb and Electronic Ltd
Tungsram vacuum tubes
Tungsram vacuum tubes
Tungsram vacuum tubes
Tungsram vacuum tubes

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted Hungarian patent no. 34541 for the world's first tungsten filament bulb that lasted longer and produced brighter light than a carbon filament.

Večernji list

Croatian daily newspaper published in Zagreb.

Front page of the 3 February 2012 issue
Front page of the 3 February 2012 issue

The list is composed of: Ivo Andrić, Giorgio Baglivi, Josip Belušić, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, Ivan Česmički, Marin Getaldić, Franjo Hanaman, Jerome, Marcel Kiepach, Julije Klović, Slavko Kopač, Benedikt Kotruljević, Zinka Kunc-Milanov, Antun Lučić, Giovanni Luppis, Dora Maar, Marko Marulić, Ivan Meštrović, Andrija Mohorovičić, Franciscus Patricius, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, Marco Polo, Herman Potočnik, Vladimir Prelog, Mario Puratić, Lavoslav Ružan, Andrea Schiavone, David Schwartz, Pope Sixtus V, Mia Slavenska, Andrija Štampar, Rudolf Steiner, Nikola Tesla, Milka Trnina, Faust Vrančić, Ivan Vučetić, and Nikola IV Zrinski.

Meštrović Pavilion

Cultural venue and the official seat of the Croatian Society of Fine Artists (HDLU) located on the Square of the Victims of Fascism in central Zagreb, Croatia.

Aerial view from the south-east
The pavilion was furnished with three minarets.

The 38 great Croatians in the list are: Ivo Andrić, Giorgio Baglivi, Josip Belušić, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, Ivan Česmički, Marin Getaldić, Franjo Hanaman, Jerome, Marcel Kiepach, Julije Klović, Slavko Kopač, Benedikt Kotruljević, Zinka Kunc-Milanov, Antun Lučić, Giovanni Luppis, Dora Maar, Marko Marulić, Ivan Meštrović, Andrija Mohorovičić, Franciscus Patricius, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, Marco Polo, Herman Potočnik, Vladimir Prelog, Mario Puratić, Lavoslav Ružan, Andrea Schiavone, David Schwarz, Pope Sixtus V, Mia Slavenska, Andrija Štampar, Rudolf Steiner, Nikola Tesla, Milka Trnina, Faust Vrančić, Ivan Vučetić, and Nikola IV Zrinski.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb

Faculty of the University of Zagreb.

Example of 15th-century Latin manuscript text with scribal abbreviations

The first professor of metallurgy and chemical technology was Franjo Hanaman, a co-inventor of the tungsten filament for electric lamps.

Edison light bulb

Edison light bulbs, retroactively referred to as antique light bulbs, and vintage light bulbs, refer to carbon- or early tungsten-filament incandescent lamps, or modern bulbs reproducing their appearance.

Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
A glowing vintage light bulb of "ST" shape

In 1904 a tungsten filament was invented by Austro-Hungarians Alexander Just and Franjo Hanaman, and was more efficient and longer-lasting than the carbonized bamboo filament used previously.

Timeline of lighting technology

Artificial lighting technology began to be developed tens of thousands of years ago and continues to be refined in the present day.

Lighting through the ages ([[:File:Eclairage.jpg|legend]])

1904 Alexander Just and Franjo Hanaman invent the tungsten filament for incandescent lightbulbs.