A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.
Franjo Hanaman (seated) and Alexander Just
A scanning electron microscope image of the tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb
Right an Just–Hanaman light-bulb, Budapest, 1906.
Elaborate light in Denver, Colorado
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
Alexander Lodygin on 1951 Soviet postal stamp
Carbon filament lamps, showing darkening of bulb
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
Historical plaque at Underhill, the first house to be lit by electric lights
Comparison of Edison, Maxim, and Swan bulbs, 1885
Edison carbon filament lamps, early 1880s
Thomas Alva Edison
by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, 27 January 1880
Hanaman (left) and Just (right), the inventors of the tungsten bulbs
Hungarian advertising of the Tungsram-bulb from 1906. This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon. The inscription reads: wire lamp with a drawn wire – indestructible.
Spectrum of an incandescent lamp at 2200 K, showing most of its emission as invisible infrared light.
Xenon halogen lamp with an E27 base, which can replace a non-halogen bulb
Thermal image of an incandescent bulb. 22–175 °C = 71–347 °F.
Spectral power distribution of a 25 W incandescent light bulb.
Destruction of a lamp filament due to air penetration
The 1902 tantalum filament light bulb was the first one to have a metal filament. This one is from 1908.
Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp. The two ring-shaped structures left and right are filament supports.
Incandescent light bulbs come in a range of shapes and sizes.
A package of four 60-watt light bulbs
Left to right: MR16 with GU10 base, MR16 with GU5.3 base, MR11 with GU4 or GZ4 base
40-watt light bulbs with standard E10, E14 and E27 Edison screw base
The double-contact bayonet cap on an incandescent bulb
The Centennial Light is the longest-lasting light bulb in the world.
Various lighting spectra as viewed in a diffraction grating. Upper left: fluorescent lamp, upper right: incandescent bulb, lower left: white LED, lower right: candle flame.

Franjo Hanaman (June 30, 1878 – January 23, 1941) was a Croatian inventor, engineer, and chemist, who gained world recognition for inventing the world's first applied electric light-bulb with a metal filament (tungsten) with his assistant Alexander Just, independently of his contemporaries.

- Franjo Hanaman

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No.

- Incandescent light bulb
A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.

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Alexander Just

Alexander Just

Austro-Hungarian chemist and inventor.

Austro-Hungarian chemist and inventor.

Alexander Just
A Just–Hanaman light-bulb, Budapest, 1906
Alexander Just as a soldier during World War I

In 1904 with Austro-Hungarian Franjo Hanaman he was the first to develop and patent an incandescent light bulb with a tungsten filament, made by extruding a paste of tungsten powder and a carbonaceous binder to produce a fine thread, then removing the carbon by heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and water vapors.