Frankenstein

Frankenstein; or, The Modern PrometheusFrankenstein, or The Modern PrometheusnovelFrankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheusnovel of the same nameFrankenFrankenstein's MonsterHenry Clervaloriginal novelDoctor Frankenstein
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.wikipedia
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Mary Shelley

Mary Wollstonecraft ShelleyMary Wollstonecraft GodwinMary
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment. Mary Shelley, aged 18, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe Shelley visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva in Switzerland.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (, ; ; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist who wrote the Gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818).

Victor Frankenstein

Dr. FrankensteinHenry FrankensteinDr. Victor Frankenstein
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
Victor Frankenstein is the main character in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.

Horror fiction

horrorHorror novelhorror story
Mary, Percy and Lord Byron had a competition to see who could write the best horror story.
The well-known 19th-century novel about Frankenstein was greatly influenced by the story of Hippolytus, where Asclepius revives him from death.

Frankenstein Castle

Castle FrankensteinBurg FrankensteinCounty of Frankenstein
Shelley travelled through Europe in 1815 along the river Rhine in Germany stopping in Gernsheim, 17 km away from Frankenstein Castle, where two centuries before, an alchemist engaged in experiments.
It is thought that this castle may have been an inspiration for Mary Shelley when she wrote her 1818 Gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.

Elizabeth Lavenza

ElizabethElizabeth FrankensteinElizabeth Fanshawe
When Victor is five years old, his parents adopt Elizabeth Lavenza, the orphaned daughter of an expropriated Italian nobleman, with whom Victor (allegedly) later falls in love.
Elizabeth Frankenstein ( Lavenza) is a fictional character first introduced in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

ShelleyPercy ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelly
The topic of galvanism and occult ideas were themes of conversation among her companions, particularly her lover and future husband Percy B. Shelley. Mary Shelley, aged 18, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe Shelley visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva in Switzerland.
Shelley was a key member of a close circle of visionary poets and writers that included Lord Byron, John Keats, Leigh Hunt, Thomas Love Peacock and his own second wife, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein.

Science fiction

sci-fiscience-fictionSci Fi
Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story because, in contrast to previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of later science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results.
Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) and The Last Man (1826) helped define the form of the science-fiction novel.

Prometheus

PrometheanCaucasian EaglePrometeo
Speaking to Victor Frankenstein, the monster says "I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel" (which ties to Lucifer in Paradise Lost, which the monster reads, and which relates to the disobedience of Prometheus in the book's subtitle).
In particular, he was regarded in the Romantic era as embodying the lone genius whose efforts to improve human existence could also result in tragedy: Mary Shelley, for instance, gave The Modern Prometheus as the subtitle to her novel Frankenstein (1818).

Mary Wollstonecraft

WollstonecraftMary WollstonecroftWollstonecraftian
Shelley's mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, died from infection shortly after giving birth to her.
She died eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter, Mary Shelley, who would become an accomplished writer and author of Frankenstein.

William Godwin

GodwinGodwinian William Godwin
Her father, William Godwin, hired a nurse briefly to care for her and her half sister before he ended up remarrying.
Their daughter, later known as Mary Shelley, would go on to write Frankenstein and marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Doctor Waldman

Dr. WaldmanM. WaldmanDr. Paul Krempe
Dr. Waldman is a fictional character who appears in Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus and in its subsequent film versions.

Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementRomantic era
Frankenstein is infused with elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement.
Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on Lake Geneva with Byron and Shelley in 1816 produced the hugely influential novel Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be Mary Shelley and the novella The Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori.

Epistolary novel

epistolaryepistolary formepistolary novels
The novel Frankenstein is written in epistolary form, documenting a fictional correspondence between Captain Robert Walton and his sister, Margaret Walton Saville.
Mary Shelley employs the epistolary form in her novel Frankenstein (1818).

Frankenstein (1931 film)

FrankensteinBaron Frankenstein1931 film
Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and reanimated by the use of electricity, this description is not consistent with Shelley's work; both the use of electricity and the cobbled-together image of Frankenstein's monster were more the result of James Whale's popular 1931 film adaptation of the story, and other early motion-picture works based upon the creature.
The film was directed by James Whale, and adapted from the play by Peggy Webling, which in turn was based on Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The created "monster" is portrayed by Boris Karloff in the film.

Lord Byron

ByronGeorge Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
Mary, Percy and Lord Byron had a competition to see who could write the best horror story. Mary Shelley, aged 18, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe Shelley visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva in Switzerland.
Mary Shelley produced what would become Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus, and Polidori produced The Vampyre, the progenitor of the Romantic vampire genre.

Son of Frankenstein

the son ofThe Son of Frankenstein
Furthermore, the 1939 film Son of Frankenstein introduced an evil laboratory assistant, Ygor (Bela Lugosi), who never existed in the original narrative.
Son of Frankenstein is a 1939 horror film directed by Rowland V. Lee, and is the third entry in Universal Studios' Frankenstein series and the last to feature Boris Karloff as the Monster.

Bride of Frankenstein

The Bride of Frankenstein1935 filmEunice
This also occurs in Frankenstein films, including Bride of Frankenstein (1935) and several subsequent films, as well as in film titles such as Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein.
The movie starts as an immediate sequel to the events that concluded the earlier film, and is rooted in a subplot of the original Mary Shelley novel, Frankenstein (1818).

Frame story

framing deviceframe narrativeframe tale
Frankenstein is written in the form of a frame story that starts with Captain Robert Walton writing letters to his sister.
Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is another good example of a book with multiple framed narratives.

Richard Brinsley Peake

The second edition of Frankenstein was published on 11 August 1823 in two volumes (by G. and W. B. Whittaker) following the success of the stage play Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein by Richard Brinsley Peake.
Richard Brinsley Peake (19 February 1792 – 4 October 1847) was a dramatist of the early nineteenth century best remembered today for his 1823 play Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein, a work based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.

Villa Diodati

Villa Doidati
Mary Shelley, aged 18, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe Shelley visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva in Switzerland.
Because of poor weather, in June 1816 the group famously spent three days together inside the house creating stories to tell each other, two of which were developed into landmark works of the Gothic horror genre: Frankenstein by Mary Shelley and The Vampyre, the first modern vampire story, by Polidori.

Novel

novelsmodern novelthe novel
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
The romances of de Sade, Les 120 Journées de Sodome (1785), Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (1840), Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818), and E.T.A. Hoffmann, Die Elixiere des Teufels (1815), would later attract 20th-century psychoanalysts and supply the images for 20th- and 21st-century horror films, love romances, fantasy novels, role-playing computer games, and the surrealists.

John William Polidori

John PolidoriPolidoriDoctor Polidori
Byron managed to write just a fragment based on the vampire legends he heard while travelling the Balkans, and from this John Polidori created The Vampyre (1819), the progenitor of the romantic vampire literary genre.
Mary Shelley worked on a tale with her husband that would later evolve into Frankenstein.

Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein

Presumption
Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein is an 1823 play in three acts by Richard Brinsley Peake based on the novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley.

James Whale

Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and reanimated by the use of electricity, this description is not consistent with Shelley's work; both the use of electricity and the cobbled-together image of Frankenstein's monster were more the result of James Whale's popular 1931 film adaptation of the story, and other early motion-picture works based upon the creature.
He chose Frankenstein, mostly because none of Universal's other properties particularly interested him and he wanted to make something other than a war picture.

Galvanism

animal electricitygalvanicGalvanic electricity
The topic of galvanism and occult ideas were themes of conversation among her companions, particularly her lover and future husband Percy B. Shelley.
The term is also used to describe the bringing to life of organisms using electricity, as popularly associated with, but only explicitly stated in the 1831 revised edition of, Mary Shelley's work Frankenstein, and people still speak of being "galvanized into action."