Franz Brentano

BrentanoFranzBrentano’sDescriptivedescriptive psychologyF.BrentanoFranz Brentano’s
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts.wikipedia
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Edmund Husserl

HusserlHusserlianGerman
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details). Brentano's focus on conscious (or phenomenal) intentionality was inherited by Carl Stumpf's Berlin School of experimental psychology, Anton Marty's Prague School of linguistics, Alexius Meinong's Graz School of experimental psychology, Kasimir Twardowski's Lwów School of philosophy, and Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
Husserl studied mathematics under the tutelage of Karl Weierstrass and Leo Königsberger, and philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianSigmund
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17. He had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, and zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus.

Carl Stumpf

Karl Stumpf
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
He studied with Franz Brentano at the University of Würzburg before receiving his doctorate at the University of Göttingen in 1868.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

MasarykTomáš MasarykT. G. Masaryk
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
After grammar school in Brno and Vienna, from 1872 to 1876, Masaryk attended the University of Vienna, where he was a student of Franz Brentano.

Christian von Ehrenfels

Baron Christian von Ehrenfels
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
There he studied philosophy, was a pupil of Franz Brentano and Alexius Meinong, promoted under supervision of Meinong, following him after his move to the Karl-Franzens-Universität (Graz), in 1885 on the topic of ''Größenrelationen und Zahlen.

Alexius Meinong

Meinong
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
Alexius Meinong studied at the Akademisches Gymnasium, Vienna and later the University of Vienna, where he read history and philosophy as a pupil of Franz Brentano.

Kazimierz Twardowski

Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
Twardowski studied philosophy in Vienna with Franz Brentano and Robert Zimmermann.

Anton Marty

Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
Marty was a student and follower of Franz Brentano, who was his teacher at the University of Würzburg.

Clemens Brentano

BrentanoBretanoClemens
He was the son of Christian Brentano, the brother of Lujo Brentano, and the nephew of Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim.
He was the uncle, via his brother Christian, of Franz and Lujo Brentano.

Rudolf Steiner

SteinerSteiner, RudolfDr. Rudolf Steiner
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
His philosophical ideas were affected by Franz Brentano, with whom he had studied, as well as by Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, and Goethe's phenomenological approach to science.

Bettina von Arnim

BettinaBettina BrentanoBettina Brentano von Arnim
He was the son of Christian Brentano, the brother of Lujo Brentano, and the nephew of Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim.
Her nephews, via her brother Christian, were Franz and Lujo Brentano.

Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint

In 1874 Brentano published his major work, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.
Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) (1874; second edition 1924) is an 1874 book by the Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, in which the author argues that the goal of psychology should be to establish exact laws.

School of Brentano

Brentano and his school
From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
The School of Brentano was a group of philosophers and psychologists who studied with Franz Brentano and were essentially influenced by him.

Phenomenology (philosophy)

phenomenologyphenomenologicalphenomenologist
The latter approach was further developed by Husserl and the phenomenological tradition. Brentano's focus on conscious (or phenomenal) intentionality was inherited by Carl Stumpf's Berlin School of experimental psychology, Anton Marty's Prague School of linguistics, Alexius Meinong's Graz School of experimental psychology, Kasimir Twardowski's Lwów School of philosophy, and Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
Husserl derived many important concepts central to phenomenology from the works and lectures of his teachers, the philosophers and psychologists Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf.

University of Vienna

ViennaVienna UniversityUniversity
From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels and many others (see School of Brentano for more details).
Other famous scholars who have taught at the University of Vienna are: Theodor W. Adorno, Alexander Van der Bellen, Manfred Bietak, Theodor Billroth, Ludwig Boltzmann, Franz Brentano, Anton Bruckner, Rudolf Carnap, Conrad Celtes, Viktor Frankl, Sigmund Freud, Eduard Hanslick, Edmund Hauler, Leon Kellner, Hans Kelsen, Adam František Kollár, Johann Josef Loschmidt, Fran Miklošič, Oskar Morgenstern, Otto Neurath, Johann Palisa, Pope Pius II, Elise Richter, Baron Carl von Rokitansky, Rudolf von Scherer, August Schleicher, Moritz Schlick, Ludwig Karl Schmarda, Joseph von Sonnenfels, Josef Stefan, Olga Taussky-Todd, Leopold Vietoris, Jalile Jalil, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Wilhelm Winkler.

Boppard

Boppard (am Rhein)HirzenachPopert
Brentano was born at, near Boppard.
Franz Brentano (1838–1917), philosopher, psychologist and founder of act psychology.

Berlin School of experimental psychology

Berlin School
Brentano's focus on conscious (or phenomenal) intentionality was inherited by Carl Stumpf's Berlin School of experimental psychology, Anton Marty's Prague School of linguistics, Alexius Meinong's Graz School of experimental psychology, Kasimir Twardowski's Lwów School of philosophy, and Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
The Berlin School of Experimental Psychology was headed by Carl Stumpf (a pupil of Franz Brentano and Hermann Lotze), a professor at the University of Berlin, where he founded the Berlin Laboratory of Experimental Psychology in 1893.

Martin Heidegger

HeideggerHeideggerianHeidegger, Martin
The young Martin Heidegger was very much inspired by Brentano's early work On the Several Senses of Being in Aristotle.
One crucial source of this insight was Heidegger's reading of Franz Brentano's treatise on Aristotle's manifold uses of the word "being", a work which provoked Heidegger to ask what kind of unity underlies this multiplicity of uses.

Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg

TrendelenburgAdolf TrendelenburgF. A. Trendelenburg
He studied philosophy at the universities of Munich, Würzburg, Berlin (with Adolf Trendelenburg) and Münster.

George Stout

G. F. StoutAnalytic psychologyG. F. '''Stout
Brentano's work also influenced George Stout, the teacher of G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell at Cambridge University.
The work contains numerous references to Franz Brentano, Kazimierz Twardowski, Carl Stumpf, Christian von Ehrenfels, and Alexius Meinong.

Intentionality

intentionalaboutact psychology
Brentano is best known for his reintroduction of the concept of intentionality—a concept derived from scholastic philosophy—to contemporary philosophy in his lectures and in his work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt (Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint). While often simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena, by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena.
The once obsolete term dates from medieval scholastic philosophy, but in more recent times it has been resurrected by Franz Brentano and adopted by Edmund Husserl.

Empirical psychology

empiricalempirical approach to psychology
(This concept is roughly equivalent to what is now called empirical psychology, cognitive science, or "heterophenomenology", an explicitly third-person, scientific approach to the study of consciousness.) The aim of descriptive psychology, on the other hand, is to describe consciousness from a first-person point of view.
It also includes several philosophical theories of psychology which based themselves on the epistemological standpoint of empiricism, e.g., Franz Brentano's Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (1874).

List of Austrian scientists

List of Austrian scientists
Franz Brentano, philosopher and psychologist

Heterophenomenology

(This concept is roughly equivalent to what is now called empirical psychology, cognitive science, or "heterophenomenology", an explicitly third-person, scientific approach to the study of consciousness.) The aim of descriptive psychology, on the other hand, is to describe consciousness from a first-person point of view.
Genetic psychology (Brentano)

Vittorio Benussi

Adherents of act psychology, which was founded by Franz Brentano, held that the most important aspect of the mind is what the mind does, rather than what is merely contained within the mind.