Franz Sigel

Franz Sigel
Riverside Drive, New York City
Portrait from Appleton's Cyclopedia

German American military officer, revolutionary and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War.

- Franz Sigel
Franz Sigel

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Battle of Fredericksburg by Kurz and Allison

Battle of Fredericksburg

Fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Battle of Fredericksburg by Kurz and Allison
Virginia, 1862
A piece of artillery forming part of "Longstreet's Line" on Marye's Heights during the Battle of Fredericksburg
Fredericksburg campaign, situation November 19, 1862 and movements since October 10
Skinkers Neck on the Rappanhannock below Fredericksburg, VA, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862
Part of Franklin's "Left Grand Division" charges across the railroad
Attack on the Rebel Works, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Sumner's assault, 1:00 p.m., December 13, 1862. The sequence of Union division attacks was French (II Corps), Hancock (II), Howard (II), and Sturgis (IX).
Hooker's assault, 3:30 p.m., December 13, 1862. The sequence of Union division attacks was Griffin (V Corps), Humphreys (V), and Getty (IX).
The Confederate troops behind the stone wall
The sunken road at Marye's Heights in 2010. Approximately 3,000 Georgians under Thomas R. R. Cobb were lined up in multiple ranks behind the stone wall, and another 3,000 were atop the slope behind it, along with their artillery.
Genl. Humphreys charging at the head of his division after sunset of Dec 13, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Here is the only known instance in which the Union photographers succeeded in getting a near view of the Confederate troops. Mathew Brady's photo shows the other bank of Rappahannock after General Lee allowed Federal troops to collect bodies of fallen soldiers.
Civil War Trust President Jim Lighthizer at Slaughter Pen Farm
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Union Army pontoon boats mobilized for deployment
Model of a portion of the pontoon bridge built for the film Gods and Generals, displayed at the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park
Pontoon bridges at Franklin's Crossing
Barksdale's Mississippi brigade fires at the Union engineers
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862 (additional map 1)
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862 (additional map 2)
Western view from Fredericksburg down Telegraph Road with Marye's Heights visible in the distant center
Marye's House upon Marye's Heights was the center of the Confederate position during the battle. Confederate troop encampments are visible to the right
Burnside's headquarters at Phillips House during the battle
Sumner's headquarters, Chatham Manor, on Stafford Heights; Burnside observed the battle primarily from this location
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The Reserve, commanded by Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel of the XI Corps, was in the area of Fairfax Court House. The XII Corps, under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, was called from Harpers Ferry to Dumfries, Virginia, to join the reserve force on December 9, but none of these troops participated in the battle.

Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

Historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States, in the lower Shenandoah Valley.

Historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States, in the lower Shenandoah Valley.

Park sign with mileage information for the Appalachian Trail in Harpers Ferry
Gravesite of Robert Harper
The Potomac Canal at Harper's Ferry. Note it is seen in two places.
Harper's Ferry in 1859
Preserved John Brown's Fort (the engine house) in 2007
Stereoscopic picture of contraband camp at Harpers Ferry, about 1861. Note John Brown's Fort in background.
July 20, 1861 Harper's Weekly news illustration: camel back locomotive and tender wrecked by the rebels in Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry in 1865, looking east (downstream); the ruins of the musket factory can be seen in the center
Harpers Ferry and bridge from Maryland Heights, 1872
Maryland Heights, Harpers Ferry, 1873
Soldiers' Gate, Storer College
1903 advertisement for the Dime Museum, showing that Harpers Ferry, easy to reach by rail, was already receiving tourists.
Hilltop House, Harpers Ferry, WV, about 1914
Around Picturesque Harper's Ferry, 1904—a book for tourists.
Footbridge over the Potomac Canal and part of the Potomac River to Island Park, a recreation area built by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on Byrne Island, Harpers Ferry, WV
Steam heat, electric light, and fishing guides and bait at short notice. 1903.
National Park Service map of Harper Ferry showing the Appalachian Trail, with (1) being the scene of John Brown's raid
Recreation of a 19th-century gun-making shop
Aerial view, looking east in October 1974.
View from Maryland Heights
The junction of US 340 and unsigned US 340 Alternate in Harpers Ferry
B&O RR Columbian at Harpers Ferry in 1949
Mennen's Borated Talcum Toilet Powder advertisement on the cliff face of Maryland Heights opposite Harpers Ferry.
2016 US Mint Harpers Ferry (John Brown's Fort) quarter

On 4 July 1864, the Union commanding Gen. Franz Sigel withdrew his troops to Maryland Heights.

German Americans

German Americans (Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.

German Americans (Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.

John Jacob Astor, in an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794, was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, making his fortune in the fur trade and New York City real estate.
Carl Schurz was the first German born US Senator (Missouri, 1868) and later US Secretary of the Interior
German population density in the United States, 1872
"From the Old to the New World" shows German emigrants boarding a steamer in Hamburg, to New York. Harper's Weekly, (New York) November 7, 1874
The Wahrenberger House in Austin served as a German-American school.
Temporary quarters for Volga Germans in central Kansas, 1875
The German vote in 1900 was in doubt; they opposed the "repudiation" policy of Bryan (right poster), but also disliked the overseas expansion McKinley had delivered (left poster)
Hugo Münsterberg, Harvard professor of psychology
Marlene Dietrich signing a soldier's cast (Belgium, 1944)
Parking meter checker stands by his police vehicle which is imprinted with the German word for police (Polizei). It is part of the town's highlighting its German ethnic origins. New Ulm, Minnesota, July 1974.
US Ancestries by County, Germany in light blue, census
Distribution of Americans claiming German Ancestry by county in 2018
The Hermann Heights Monument in New Ulm, Minnesota. Erected by the Sons of Hermann, it is the 3rd largest copper statue in the United States after the Statue of Liberty and Portlandia. Historians have regarded Hermann's victory over Roman troops in 9CE as Rome's greatest defeat, and in the 19th century he became a symbol of unity for German immigrants facing anti-German sentiment in the United States
German newspapers in North America, 1922
This 1850 census map shows the Lutheran population. Nearly all were German, since few Scandinavians had arrived yet.
Anastasy Vonsyatsky marching with the German American Bund in 1939
American wartime propaganda depicted the bloodthirsty German "Hun" soldier as an enemy of civilization, with his eyes on America from across the Atlantic
German-American farmer John Meints of Minnesota was tarred and feathered in August 1918 for allegedly not supporting war bond drives.

A popular Union commander among Germans, Major General Franz Sigel was the highest-ranking German officer in the Union Army, with many German immigrants claiming to enlist to "fight mit Sigel".

Jubal Early

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

Early delayed his march for several days in a futile attempt to capture a small force under Franz Sigel at Maryland Heights near Harpers Ferry.

Battle of Chancellorsville, by Kurz and Allison, 1889
(Apocryphal painting depicts the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson on May 2, 1863)

Battle of Chancellorsville

Major battle of the American Civil War , and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville campaign.

Major battle of the American Civil War , and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville campaign.

Battle of Chancellorsville, by Kurz and Allison, 1889
(Apocryphal painting depicts the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson on May 2, 1863)
Virginia, 1863
A piece of artillery.
Troops crossing the Rapidan at Germanna Ford
Battle of Chancellorsville, Situation Late 30 April 1863 and Movements since 27 April
Troops on Hooker's right cross the Rappahannock
Chancellorsville, actions on May 1
Battle of Chancellorsville, 1 May 1863 (Situation at Dark)
Chancellorsville, actions on May 2
Battle of Chancellorsville, 2 May 1863 (Situation at 1800)
The ruins of Catharine Furnace photographed in 2011
The site of "Keenan's Charge" [8th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment] 2 May 1863
Dowdall's Tavern was Union General Oliver O. Howard's headquarters until he was surprised and driven out by Stonewall Jackson's Confederate troops on May 2.
Wilderness Church at Chancellorsville was the center of a stand made by Union general Schurz's division during Stonewall Jackson's surprise flank attack.
Ruins of the Chancellor House which was the headquarters of Federal General Joseph Hooker of the Army of the Potomac during the battle, later burned, May 1863
The XI Corps routs before Jackson's evening dinner time surprise attack
XII Corps artillery halts Jackson's surprise attack
Lower right photograph of trees shattered by artillery shells near where Jackson was shot on the Orange Plank Road.
Chancellorsville, actions on May 3, dawn to 10 a.m.
Battle of Chancellorsville, 3 May 1863 (Situation Early)
Soldiers of the VI Corps, Army of the Potomac, in trenches before storming Marye's Heights at the Second Battle of Fredericksburg during the Chancellorsville campaign, Virginia, May 1863. This photograph (Library of Congress #B-157) is sometimes mistakenly labeled as taken at the 1864 Siege of Petersburg, Virginia.
Chancellorsville, actions on May 3, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., including the Second Battle of Fredericksburg and the Battle of Salem Church
Chancellorsville Campaign, 3 May 1863 (Battle of Salem Church: Situation at 1600)
Confederate dead behind the stone wall of Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia, killed during the Chancellorsville campaign (the Second Battle of Fredericksburg), May 1863. Photograph by A.J. Russell.
Chancellorsville, actions on May 4, withdrawals on May 5 and 6
Battle of Chancellorsville, 4 May 1863 (Situation at 1800)
Battle of Chancellorsville, 6 May 1863 (Situation at 1700)
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Fremont had refused to serve under Pope and was replaced by Maj. Gen Franz Sigel, an inept political general who, however, was much beloved by his German troops.

The future park site depicted in the King's Handbook of New York City, circa 1890

Riverside Park (Manhattan)

Scenic waterfront public park in the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, and Hamilton Heights neighborhoods of the borough of Manhattan in New York City.

Scenic waterfront public park in the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, and Hamilton Heights neighborhoods of the borough of Manhattan in New York City.

The future park site depicted in the King's Handbook of New York City, circa 1890
Riverside Drive Viaduct under construction
Trains travel through the Freedom Tunnel below this section of the park.
A portion of the railroad tunnel, seen from the Henry Hudson Parkway at 116th Street
Walkway near 108th Street
The Riverside South development funded this extension of Riverside Park. New Waterline Square buildings visible to the left.
Staircase from the promenade above the Freedom Tunnel to the parkland beside the tunnel
Ramp in Riverside Park looking up to W 68th Street
Red-tailed hawk in Riverside Park
General Franz Sigel memorial
Grant's Tomb
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument
The Boat Basin Cafe inside the rotunda
Springtime in Riverside Park

The General Franz Sigel memorial, at 106th Street, was designed by the architect William W. Bosworth and dedicated in October 1907.

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

Generals George Meade and Benjamin Butler were ordered to move against Lee near Richmond, General Franz Sigel (and later Philip Sheridan) were to attack the Shenandoah Valley, General Sherman was to capture Atlanta and march to the sea (the Atlantic Ocean), Generals George Crook and William W. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile, Alabama.

John C. Breckinridge

American lawyer, politician, and soldier.

American lawyer, politician, and soldier.

Breckinridge in an undated photo
Breckinridge, circa 1850
Former Governor Robert P. Letcher was unable to unseat Breckinridge in 1853.
A campaign poster for Buchanan and Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge, photograph by Mathew Brady
A marble bust of Breckinridge from the Senate's vice-presidential bust collection
Breckinridge in 1860 by Jules-Émile Saintin
States' electoral votes by candidate; Lincoln states are red, Breckinridge states are green, Bell states are orange, and Douglas states are blue
John C. Breckinridge by Eliphalet Frazer Andrews
Bust of Breckinridge by T.A.R. Kitson, Vicksburg National Military Park
Breckinridge as a Confederate general
Breckinridge's statue formerly located at Cheapside Park in downtown Lexington
Breckinridge's party hijacking a larger boat
Breckinridge in exile in Paris
Breckinridge after the war
Breckinridge's gravestone

On May 5, General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, ordered Breckinridge to take command of a reconnaissance mission to scout the federal forces under Franz Sigel near Winchester, Virginia as part of the Lynchburg Campaign.