Fraser Canyon Gold Rush

Fraser CanyonFraser goldfieldsgold rushFraser Canyon Gold Rush skirmishesFraser Gold RushFraser River1858 gold rushFrasermass influx of miners from California to what is now British Columbia in 1858Fraser Canyon gold seeker
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.wikipedia
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British Columbia

BCB.C.British Columbia, Canada
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment.
Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866) was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Lytton, British Columbia

LyttonLytton BCthe town of the same name
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.
It was founded during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, when it was known as "The Forks".

James Douglas (governor)

James DouglasSir James DouglasGovernor James Douglas
Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint.
In 1858, he also became the first Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, in order to assert the authority of the British Empire during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, which had the potential to turn the B.C. Mainland into an American state.

Hope, British Columbia

HopeFort HopeDistrict of Hope
The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet.
The area was transformed by the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, beginning in 1858.

Pavilion, British Columbia

PavilionPavilion Indian Reserve No. 1Pavilion 1
The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet.
Pavilion gets its name from its gold rush-era appearance, when the chief of the Tskwaylaxw flew a large banner of white cloth which was visible to travelers up and down the canyon on the River Trail and the Old Cariboo Road (the white banner was a mark of a "friendly Indian" in the context of the then-recent Fraser Canyon War farther south along the Fraser, and also maybe a mark of wealth, cloth being an expensive trade good at the time).

Lillooet

East LillooetDistrict of LillooetLilloet
The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with even more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet; others got to the upper canyon via the Okanagan Trail and Similkameen Trail, and to the lower Canyon via the Whatcom Trail and the Skagit Trail.
The town had its start as one of the main centres of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, during which it was reckoned to be "the largest town west of Chicago and north of San Francisco", a title also held by certain other towns in British Columbia in rapid succession (Yale first, Barkerville after).

Okanagan Trail

A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with even more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet; others got to the upper canyon via the Okanagan Trail and Similkameen Trail, and to the lower Canyon via the Whatcom Trail and the Skagit Trail.
The Okanagan Trail was an inland route to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush from the Lower Columbia region of the Washington and Oregon Territories in 1858-1859.

Fraser Canyon

FraserCentral Fraser CanyonUpper Fraser Trench
The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with even more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet; others got to the upper canyon via the Okanagan Trail and Similkameen Trail, and to the lower Canyon via the Whatcom Trail and the Skagit Trail.
The area around Hell's Gate carries the name Black Canyon, which may either be a reference to the colour of the rocks when it rains, or the name of a community built on the cliffsides here during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Whatcom Trail

A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with even more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet; others got to the upper canyon via the Okanagan Trail and Similkameen Trail, and to the lower Canyon via the Whatcom Trail and the Skagit Trail.
The Whatcom Trail was an overland trail from the Puget Sound area of Washington Territory during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858.

Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866)

Colony of British ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaMainland Colony
It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, and the founding of many towns.
Almost overnight, some ten to twenty thousand men moved into the region around present-day Yale, British Columbia, sparking the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Fraser River

FraserMiddle Arm Fraser RiverNorth Arm Fraser River
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.
It was the site of its first recorded settlements of Aboriginal people (see Musqueam, Sto:lo, St'at'imc, Secwepemc and Nlaka'pamux), the route of multitudes of prospectors during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the main vehicle of the province's early commerce and industry.

Gold rush

goldrushgold rushesGold was discovered
4000 of these Gold Rush pioneers settlers were Chinese.
Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, British Columbia (1858–61)

Nicoamen River

The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.
The confluence of the Thompson and Nicoamen is the site of one of the incidents which led to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–60, as the location of a meet-up between the Nlaka'pamux people of the area and American miners.

Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment

Royal EngineersColumbia Detachment
Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment.
When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform the newly established Colony of British Columbia (1858–66) into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and “found a second England on the shores of the Pacific”.

McGowan's War

Ned McGowan's War
This led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody successfully quashed a group of rebellious American miners.
The conflict posed a threat to the newly established British authority on the British Columbia mainland (which had only just been declared a colony the previous summer), at the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Fraser Canyon War

This led to the Fraser Canyon War.
It occurred during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, which brought a large number of white settlers to the Fraser Canyon area.

Amor De Cosmos

Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, and this included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others.
The city, since 1843 a quiet village of about 300 until the spring of that year, was just entering an economic boom as it became a jumping-off point for miners headed to the New Caledonia (now mainland British Columbia) to participate in the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Edward Bulwer-Lytton

Lord LyttonBulwer-LyttonEdward Bulwer
When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific".
When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Bulwer-Lytton, who was Secretary of State for the Colonies, requested that the War Office recommend a field officer, "a man of good judgement possessing a knowledge of mankind", to lead a Corps of 150 (later increased to 172) Royal Engineers, who had been selected for their "superior discipline and intelligence".

Port Douglas, British Columbia

Port DouglasPort Douglas Band
This title was also briefly held by Port Douglas, Yale, and later on by Barkerville.
Port Douglas was the second major settlement of any size on the British Columbia mainland (after Yale) during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Matthew Baillie Begbie

Judge BegbieBegbieChief Justice Begbie
Its potential to provoke United States annexation ambitions within the goldfields, prompted the governor to send newly appointed Chief Justice Begbie, the colony's chief of police Chartres Brew and a contingent of Royal Engineers and Royal Marines to intervene.
Given the influx of prospectors and others during Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the following Cariboo Gold Rush of 1861, Begbie played a crucial role in the establishment of law and order throughout the new colony.

Similkameen Gold Rush

the Similkameen
Other gold rushes proliferated around the colony, with notable gold rushes at Rock Creek, the Similkameen, Wild Horse Creek and the Big Bend of the Columbia River spinning immediately off the Fraser rush, and gold exploration soon after led to the Omineca Gold Rush and the Stikine Gold Rush, which led to the creation of the Stikine Territory to the colony's north.
The Similkameen Rush was one of a flurry of small rushes peripheral to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, which had drawn tens of thousands of prospectors to the new colony in 1858-1859, among the others being Rock Creek Gold Rush and Big Bend.

Hill's Bar

Hills Bar
Dixon was beaten by two men from Hill's Bar, the other main town in the southern part of the goldfields.
The eponymous bar was the first active placer mining site at the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, and was the scene of the Boatmakers of San Francisco claim, which included Ned McGowan of McGowan's War, and involved a dispute with Kowpelst (White Hat), chief of the Spuzzum people.

Richard Clement Moody

Major-General Richard Clement MoodyMoodyColonel Richard Moody
When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific".
When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Secretary of State for the Colonies, requested that War Office recommend a field officer who were 'a man of good judgement possessing a knowledge of mankind' to lead a Corps of 150 (later increased to 172) Royal Engineers who had been selected for their 'superior discipline and intelligence'.

Big Bend Gold Rush

Big Bendgold rusha brief gold rush on the Big Bend
Other gold rushes proliferated around the colony, with notable gold rushes at Rock Creek, the Similkameen, Wild Horse Creek and the Big Bend of the Columbia River spinning immediately off the Fraser rush, and gold exploration soon after led to the Omineca Gold Rush and the Stikine Gold Rush, which led to the creation of the Stikine Territory to the colony's north.
The rush was a spin-off of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, the first of the major gold rushes which dominate the colony's history, out from which the huge influx of miners from California on the Fraser fanned out into other regions of the colony in search of gold.

Fort Langley National Historic Site

Fort LangleyFort Langley fur trade postLangley
Moody had hoped to begin immediately the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hill's Bar.
Due to its strategic location on the northern boundary of the Oregon Territory of the U.S. and in the path of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Fort Langley grew dramatically.