Frederick Douglass

Douglass in 1879
Anna Murray Douglass, Douglass's wife for 44 years, portrait ca. 1860
Frederick Douglass, c. undefined 1840s, in his 20s
The home and meetinghouse of the Johnsons, where Douglass and his wife lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts
William Lloyd Garrison, abolitionist and one of Douglass's first friends in the North
Plaque to Frederick Douglass, West Bell St., Dundee, Scotland
Douglass in 1847, around 29 years of age
Douglass circa 1847–52, around his early 30s
Frederick Douglass in 1856, around 38 years of age
Douglass argued against John Brown's plan to attack the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, painting by Jacob Lawrence
1863 broadside Men of Color to Arms!, written by Douglass
Frederick Douglass in 1876, around 58 years of age
Douglass's former residence in the U Street Corridor of Washington, D.C. He built 2000–2004 17th Street, NW, in 1875.
Frederick Douglass after 1884 with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting). The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts.
Cedar Hill, Douglass's house in the Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C., is preserved as a National Historic Site.
The gravestone of Frederick Douglass, located in Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester
A poster from the Office of War Information, Domestic Operations Branch, News Bureau, 1943
A 1965 U.S. postage stamp, published during the upsurge of the civil rights movement

African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.

- Frederick Douglass

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Victoria Woodhull

American leader of the women's suffrage movement who ran for President of the United States in the 1872 election.

Victoria Woodhull, c. 1860s
Cabinet card of Woodhull by Mathew Brady
"Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan!" 1872 caricature by Thomas Nast: Wife, carrying a heavy burden of children and drunk husband, admonishing (Mrs.) Satan (Victoria Woodhull), "I'd rather travel the hardest path of matrimony than follow your footsteps." Mrs. Satan's sign reads, "Be saved by free love."
John Biddulph Martin
Norton Park, Bredon's Norton

Woodhull was the candidate in 1872 from the Equal Rights Party, supporting women's suffrage and equal rights; her running mate (unbeknownst to him) was abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass.

Talbot County, Maryland

Located in the heart of the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the U.S. state of Maryland.

Grave of Col. Tench Tilghman
Third Haven Meeting House
Front of St. Joseph Church
Longwoods School House
Poplar Island
Back of Old White Marsh Church
The "Talbot Boys" confederate monument outside the county courthouse
Old Wye Episcopal Church

The abolitionist Frederick Douglass was born into slavery near Tuckahoe Creek around 1817 or 1818.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave

Frontispiece of Douglass from the first edition
Douglass, photographed between 1850 and 1860

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is an 1845 memoir and treatise on abolition written by famous orator and former slave Frederick Douglass during his time in Lynn, Massachusetts.

1872 United States presidential election

The 22nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1872.

Map of presidential election results by county
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Frederick Douglass was nominated for vice president, although he did not attend the convention, acknowledge his nomination, or take an active role in the campaign.

New Bedford, Massachusetts

City in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States.

William Allen Wall's depiction of Wampanoag people meeting Bartholomew Gosnold and his crew upon their arrival in New Bedford in 1602
Territories of the Wampanoag people around 1620, between first European explorations of the Acushnet River in 1602 and the establishment of Old Dartmouth in 1652.
Lowering Boats by Clifford Warren Ashley, held at the New Bedford Whaling Museum
View of historic New Bedford harbor
Old Colony Railroad Station in New Bedford, as it looked c. 1907–1915. As early as 1840, New Bedford was integrated into the northeastern economy by rail.
The New Bedford Meeting House, built in 1822, replaced an earlier Quaker meeting house on Spring Street.
New Bedford in 1876
North Congregational Church, Purchase Street, 1906
Monument to Portuguese-American Veterans
View of boats docked at New Bedford
Soldiers and Sailors Monument stands in the center of Clasky Common Park.
Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England (2000 U.S. Census). Americans of Portuguese descent plurality shown in grey.
Hathaway Mills
2019 New Bedford Folk Festival
New Bedford Public Library, 1899
New Bedford City Hall
Engine 8, on Acushnet Ave.
A portion of "The Grand Panorama of a Whaling Voyage 'Round the World" of 1848.
William Street in winter, looking west
Paul Cuffee in 1812
The port of New Bedford

The city attracted many freed or escaped African-American slaves, including Frederick Douglass, who lived there from 1838 until 1841.

The Liberator (newspaper)

Weekly abolitionist newspaper, printed and published in Boston by William Lloyd Garrison and, through 1839, by Isaac Knapp.

Liberator v.1, No.1, 1831
An issue of The Liberator depicting African Americans next to a lynching tree
Fundraising appeal of William Garrison, 1834
Garrison celebrates 13th amendment William Lloyd Garrison.
1850 Liberator masthead, designed by Hammatt Billings

Despite its modest circulation of 3,000, it had prominent and influential readers, including Frederick Douglass, Beriah Green and Alfred Niger.

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

In the decades leading up to the Civil War, abolitionists, such as Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and Frederick Douglass, repeatedly used the Puritan heritage of the country to bolster their cause.

American Anti-Slavery Society

Abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan.

The Liberty Bell. Boston: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1856. Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections. Carl A. Kroch Library, Cornell University.
Program for the 29th anniversary of the Anti-Slavery Society

Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, had become a prominent abolitionist and was a key leader of this society, who often spoke at its meetings.

Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad

American railroad that operated from 1836 to 1881.

President Street Station, Baltimore. Built 1849–1850. A portion of the station's "headhouse" is still standing and is home to the Baltimore Civil War Museum.
PW&B freight shed on Carpenter Street between Broad and 15th Street in South Philadelphia. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places since September 8, 2011. (Now Sprouts Farmers Market )

Among the passengers that year was Frederick Douglass, a slave who escaped his Baltimore owner by boarding a PB&W train, perhaps at Canton or somewhere east of where the President Street Station would be built in 1849, and riding it northeast to Philadelphia.

Reform movement

Type of social movement that aims to bring a social or also a political system closer to the community's ideal.

Chartist meeting, Kennington Common, 1848
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Monument in Newcastle upon Tyne
William Ewart Gladstone as Palmerston's Chancellor of the Exchequer
Susan B. Anthony (standing) with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Benito Juárez
Alexander II

Abolition movement – The addition of Mexico's former territories in 1848 at the conclusion of the Mexican–American War reopened the possibility of the expansion of race-based chattel slavery; the adaptation of the slave system to industrial-style cotton production resulted in increasing dehumanization of black workers and a backlash against slavery in the northern states; key figures included William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass.