A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Crusaders besieging Damascus in 1148
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
13th-century stained glass image of Frederick I, Strasbourg Cathedral
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
Penny or denier with Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, struck in Nijmegen
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Wax seal of Frederick I, used in the imperial residence of Pfalz Wimpfen
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Frederick's so-called baptismal cup, silver, partly gilded, Aachen 1160
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
The Barbarossa Chandelier in Aachen Cathedral was donated by Frederick sometime after 1165 as a tribute to Charlemagne.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
Frederick Barbarossa, middle, flanked by two of his children, King Henry VI (left) and Duke Frederick VI (right). From the Historia Welforum
The now secularised St Peter's Church at Petersberg Citadel, Erfurt, where Henry the Lion submitted to Barbarossa in 1181
Path of the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa's path in red
Frederick Barbarossa depicted during the Third Crusade
Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph, from the Gotha Manuscript of the Saxon World Chronicle
A German expedition led by Johann Nepomuk Sepp to excavate the bones from the ruins of the Crusader Cathedral of Tyre, 1879
The Frederick Barbarossa Memorial, near Silifke in Mersin Province, southern Turkey. The text explains in Turkish and German how Frederick drowned nearby.
Frederick Barbarossa as a crusader, miniature from a copy of the Historia Hierosolymitana, 1188
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
Pavia, Basilica of San Michele Maggiore, the five stones above which the throne was placed during coronation of Frederick I.

The association succeeded the Veronese League, established in 1164 by Verona, Padua, Vicenza, and the Republic of Venice, after Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had claimed direct Imperial control over Italy at the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia and began to replace the podestà magistrates by his own commissioners.

- Lombard League

) He was opposed by the pro-papal Lombard League (now joined by Venice, Sicily and Constantinople), which had previously formed to stand against him.

- Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".

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The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)

Battle of Legnano

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The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Pope Alexander III
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

Bologna

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Capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

Capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

The iconic Due Torri
Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna
Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Bologna in 1640
Engraving of the city of Bologna from Leandro Alberti's History of Bologna, 1590, showing the two surviving towers and several others
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore
Sappers of the 136 Indian Railway Maintenance Company repair some of the extensive damage to the railyards in 1945.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing
Aerial photograph of Bologna (from East to West).
Matteo Lepore, mayor of Bologna since 2021
Fiera District, seat of the regional government of Emilia-Romagna
Panoramic view of central Bologna
Piazza Maggiore, with San Petronio Basilica, Palazzo dei Banchi and Palazzo del Podestà
The colourful open-air market of Via Pescherie Vecchie
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
The icon of the Madonna di San Luca
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio: the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita dominates the foreground; the Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda towers ("Due Torri") are seen on the right.
Unipol Tower, at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
A Trolleybus of the urban trolleybus network managed by TPER, photographed in Via Saffi
The University of Bologna is the world's oldest institution of higher learning, founded in AD 1088.
Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, dating from 1637
The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
Façade of Arena del Sole theatre
Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese, as served in Bologna
The 32,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909.
Pope Benedict XIV, born in Bologna in 1675

However, when Frederick Barbarossa subsequently attempted to strike down the deal, Bologna joined the Lombard League, which then defeated the imperial armies at the Battle of Legnano and established an effective autonomy at the Peace of Constance in 1183.

Piacenza

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City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

Mosaic of the old city Coat of Arms
Two gold Doppie (1626) depicting Odoardo Farnese (obv) and Placentia floret ("Piacenza flourishes")(rev).
The French Pass the River Po at Piacenza, by Giuseppe Pietro Bagetti, 1803.
Piacenza railway bridge over Po river in a 19th-century image.
Piazza Cavalli and the façade of Palazzo Comunale il Gotico''.
Façade of the Cathedral.
Ranuccio I Farnese monument in Piacenza
Via XX Settembre shopping street.
Basilica of Sant'Antonino, Piacenza, patron of Piacenza.
The Renaissance church of San Sisto.
Teatro Municipale (Piacenza)

From 1126, Piacenza was a free commune and an important member of the Lombard League.

In this role, it took part in the war against Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, and in the subsequent battle of Legnano (1176).

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

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King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy
A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen.
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen as Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick's birth in Jesi (illustration in Giovanni Villani's Nuova Cronica, ca. 1348)
Seals used by Frederick as Emperor (ed. Otto Posse 1909):
1: first imperial seal (1221–1225),
2: second imperial seal (1226),
3: third imperial seal, addition of the title of King of Jerusalem (1226–1250)
4: seal used in 1221 and 1225,
5: first seal as King of Jerusalem (1233).
An augustale coin of Frederick II, from the Messina mint of Sicily, struck some time after 1231
Frederick II (left) meets Al-Kamil (right). Nuova Cronica, c. 1348.
A statue of Frederick II from the Black Tower of Regensburg, c. 1280–1290.
The victorious Battle of Cortenuova against the 2nd Lombard League (1237), Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Frederick II's troops paid with leather coins during the sieges of Brescia and Faenza, Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Battle of Giglio, against Gregory IX (1241), miniature in Chronica Maiora (1259).
Contemporary bust of Frederick II in Barletta
Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.
Frederick II being excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV
The porphyry sarcophagus of Frederick II in the Cathedral of Palermo
A 1781 picture showing the mummified corpse of Frederick II in Palermo
Stained glass windows from the Strasbourg Cathedral, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France, dated circa 1210–1270, depicting emperors of the Holy Roman Empire: Philip of Swabia, Henry IV, Henry V, and Frederick II

Those assembled responded with the reformation of the Lombard League, which had already defeated his grandfather Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century, and again Milan was chosen as the league's leader.

Fresco in Palazzo Pubblico, Siena depicting the submission of the emperor to the Pope

Treaty of Venice

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Fresco in Palazzo Pubblico, Siena depicting the submission of the emperor to the Pope

The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Bronze replica of the contract, Konstanz

Peace of Constance

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Bronze replica of the contract, Konstanz
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa makes peace with the Lombards in Constance

The Peace of Constance (25 June 1183) was a privilege granted by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his son and co-ruler, Henry VI, King of the Romans, to the members of the Lombard League to end the state of rebellion (war) that been ongoing since 1167.

The Hohenstaufen Castle ruin

Hohenstaufen

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Noble family of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia from 1079, and to royal rule in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages from 1138 until 1254.

Noble family of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia from 1079, and to royal rule in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages from 1138 until 1254.

The Hohenstaufen Castle ruin
The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the middle 12th century under the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I.
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick V of Swabia, Welfenchronik, 1167/79, Weingarten Abbey
Frederick's Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.
Frederick II with his falcon, from De arte venandi cum avibus, c. 1240, Vatican Library
A Staufer stele in Cheb, Czech Republic (2013)
Family tree of the Hohenstaufen emperors including their relation to succeeding dynasties
Seal of Henry II of Swabia (dated 1216) shows him as a mounted knight with a shield and banner displaying three leopards (three lions passant guardant)as the Hohenstaufen coat of arms; the three lions (later shown just passant) would later become known as the Swabian coat of arms.
Arms of the Hohenstaufen Sicily

The dynasty's most prominent rulers – Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220) – ascended the imperial throne and also reigned over Italy and Burgundy.

The Papacy and the prosperous city-states of the Lombard League in northern Italy were traditional enemies, but the fear of Imperial domination caused them to join ranks to fight Frederick.

Diet of Roncaglia

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The Diet of Roncaglia, held near Piacenza, was an Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of Northern Italian cities held in 1154 and in 1158 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to deliberate on the matter of sovereignty of his subjects, which was being challenged by the economical and political flourishing of the northern Italian cities and free comunes, including the cities of Chieri, Asti, Tortona, but most importantly Milan.

The decisive battle in the continuing struggle was the Battle of Legnano in 1176, where Frederick was defeated by the Lombard League, and later forced to renege his rights of sovereignty south of the Alps, in the Kingdom of Italy.

Verona

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City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

The Roman Ponte Pietra in Verona
Equestrian statue of Cangrande I
The Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, the symbol of the Venetian Republic
The Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona
Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall
Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona
The Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
Verona Arena
Piazza delle Erbe
Porta Borsari
Piazza dei Signori
San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
The balcony of Juliet's house
The Portoni della Bra
The Verona Cathedral
The Santa Maria Antica
The Sant'Anastasia
The San Giorgio in Braida
An ATV bus in Verona
Verona Porta Nuova railway station
Verona airport

In 1164 Verona joined with Vicenza, Padua and Treviso to create the Veronese League, which was integrated with the Lombard League in 1167 to battle against Frederick I Barbarossa.

Alessandria

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City and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.

City and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.

Alessandria was founded in 1168 with a charter as a free comune; it was sited upon a preexisting urban nucleus, to serve as a stronghold for the Lombard League, defending the traditional liberties of the communes of northern Italy against the Imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa.