Frederick Sanger

Fred SangerSangerFrederic SangerSanger, Frederick
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.wikipedia
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Paul Berg

Berg, Paul
The other half was awarded to Paul Berg "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant DNA".
He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980, along with Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger.

Protein structure

structureconformationconformational
In 1958, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin".
The sequence of amino acids in insulin was discovered by Frederick Sanger, establishing that proteins have defining amino acid sequences.

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencesequencesequencing
In 1980, Walter Gilbert and Sanger shared half of the chemistry prize "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
The foundation for sequencing proteins was first laid by the work of Frederick Sanger who by 1955 had completed the sequence of all the amino acids in insulin, a small protein secreted by the pancreas.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
In 1958, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin".
The primary structure of bovine insulin was first determined by Frederick Sanger in 1951.

Rendcomb

Rendcombe
Frederick Sanger was born on 13 August 1918 in Rendcomb, a small village in Gloucestershire, England, the second son of Frederick Sanger, a general practitioner, and his wife, Cicely Sanger (née Crewdson).

Walter Gilbert

GilbertGilbert, WalterWalter (Wally) Gilbert
In 1980, Walter Gilbert and Sanger shared half of the chemistry prize "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
In 1979, Gilbert was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Frederick Sanger.

Albert Neuberger

AlbertNeuberger
After little more than a month Pirie left the department and Albert Neuberger became his adviser.
At the start of the Second World War he moved to the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge where he took on Fred Sanger as his PhD student.

Beit Memorial Fellowships for Medical Research

Beit Memorial FellowshipBeit Memorial Fellowship for Medical ResearchBeit Memorial
In Chibnall's group he was initially supported by the Medical Research Council and then from 1944 until 1951 by a Beit Memorial Fellowship for Medical Research.
Beit Memorial Fellows have been awarded a number of prestigious prizes with seven Nobel Prizes including two for Frederick Sanger (1944) and the 2012 prize for medicine for John Gurdon.

1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene

dinitrofluorobenzeneDNFBDNP
Sanger used a chemical reagent 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (now, also known as Sanger's reagent, fluorodinitrobenzene, FDNB or DNFB), sourced from poisonous gas research by Bernhard Charles Saunders at the Chemistry Department at Cambridge University.
In 1945, Frederick Sanger described its use for determining the N-terminal amino acid in polypeptide chains, in particular insulin.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology

MRC Laboratory of Molecular BiologyLaboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)MRC-LMB
From 1951 Sanger was a member of the external staff of the Medical Research Council and when they opened the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in 1962, he moved from his laboratories in the Biochemistry Department of the university to the top floor of the new building.
Additionally, Fred Sanger's Unit which had been housed in the University's Biochemistry department joined them, as did Aaron Klug from London.

Phi X 174

ΦX174bacteriophage φX174Phage Φ-X174
Nevertheless, his group were able to sequence most of the 5,386 nucleotides of the single-stranded bacteriophage φX174.
This work was completed by Fred Sanger and his team in 1977.

Linus Pauling

PaulingLinus Carl PaulingLinus C. Pauling
, Sanger is the only person to have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, and one of only four two-time Nobel laureates: The other three were Marie Curie (Physics, 1903 and Chemistry, 1911), Linus Pauling (Chemistry, 1954 and Peace, 1962) and John Bardeen (twice Physics, 1956 and 1972).
He is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize (the others being Marie Curie, John Bardeen and Frederick Sanger).

St John's College, Cambridge

St. John's College, CambridgeSt John's CollegeSt. John's College
In 1936 Sanger went to St John's College, Cambridge to study natural sciences.
Nobel Prize winners: Sir Edward Appleton, for discovering the Appleton layer, Max Born (fellow), physicist, Sir John Cockcroft KCB, physicist who first split the atom, Allan Cormack, for the invention of the CAT scan, Paul Dirac, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, for work on the behaviour of electrons in magnetic solids, Abdus Salam, for unifying the electromagnetic force and the weak force, Frederick Sanger, molecular biologist, Maurice Wilkins, awarded Nobel prize for Medicine or Physiology with Watson and Crick for discovering the structure of DNA, and Eric Maskin (visiting & honorary fellow), awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2007.

Richard Laurence Millington Synge

Richard SyngeSyngeR. L. M. Synge
To get to this point, Sanger refined a partition chromatography method first developed by Richard Laurence Millington Synge and Archer John Porter Martin to determine the composition of amino acids in wool.
Between 1942 and 1948 he studied peptides of the protein group gramicidin, work later used by Frederick Sanger in determining the structure of insulin.

Wellcome Sanger Institute

Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteSanger InstituteSanger Centre
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (formerly the Sanger Centre) is named in his honour.
It was established in 1992 and named after double Nobel Laureate, Frederick Sanger.

Rodney Robert Porter

Rodney PorterRodney R. PorterR. R. Porter
His first graduate student was Rodney Porter who joined the research group in 1947.
After the war he moved to the University of Cambridge where he became Fred Sanger's first PhD student.

Canada Gairdner International Award

Gairdner Foundation International AwardGairdner AwardGairdner Prize

Albert Chibnall

Albert Charles ChibnallCharles ChibnallChibnall, Albert Charles
He was examined by Charles Harington and Albert Charles Chibnall and awarded his doctorate in 1943.
His notable students included Fred Sanger who, after he was awarded in PhD in 1943 joined Chibnall's lab.

Genomics

genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
The Institute now has over 900 people and is one of the world's largest genomic research centres.
Following Rosalind Franklin's confirmation of the helical structure of DNA, James D. Watson and Francis Crick's publication of the structure of DNA in 1953 and Fred Sanger's publication of the Amino acid sequence of insulin in 1955, nucleic acid sequencing became a major target of early molecular biologists.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
In determining these sequences, Sanger proved that proteins have a defined chemical composition.
The first protein to be sequenced was insulin, by Frederick Sanger, in 1949.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Nobel PrizeChemistryNobel Prize for Chemistry
, Sanger is the only person to have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, and one of only four two-time Nobel laureates: The other three were Marie Curie (Physics, 1903 and Chemistry, 1911), Linus Pauling (Chemistry, 1954 and Peace, 1962) and John Bardeen (twice Physics, 1956 and 1972). Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.

Sanger sequencing

chain termination methodSanger methodSanger
In 1977 Sanger and colleagues introduced the "dideoxy" chain-termination method for sequencing DNA molecules, also known as the "Sanger method".
Developed by Frederick Sanger and colleagues in 1977, it was the most widely used sequencing method for approximately 40 years.

John Sulston

John E. SulstonSir John SulstonJohn Edward Sulston
He agreed to having the Centre named after him when asked by John Sulston, the founding director, but warned, "It had better be good."
At this point he was made director of the newly established Sanger Centre (named after Fred Sanger ), located in Cambridgeshire, England.