Frederick the Great

Frederick IIFrederick II of PrussiaFrederickFriedrich IIKing Frederick IIFrederick the Great of PrussiaFrederick II, King of PrussiaFrederick of PrussiaFrederick II the GreatKing Frederick
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.wikipedia
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Prussian Army

PrussianArmyPrussian troops
His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War.
King Frederick the Great, a formidable battle commander, led the disciplined Prussian troops to victory during the 18th-century Silesian Wars and greatly increased the prestige of the Kingdom of Prussia.

Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussians
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more commonly known as Frederick the Great, who was the third son of Frederick William I.

Silesian Wars

First Silesian WarSilesian WarSecond Silesian War
Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.

Sanssouci

Sans SouciSanssouci PalaceBerlin
Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam.
Sanssouci was the summer palace of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in Potsdam, near Berlin.

First Partition of Poland

Before 1772until 1772First Partition
Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
Frederick the Great engineered the partition to prevent Austria, jealous of Russian successes against the Ottoman Empire, from going to war.

Frederick William II of Prussia

Frederick William IIFriedrich Wilhelm IIKing Frederick William II
Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick II.

Prince Augustus William of Prussia

Augustus WilliamAugustus William of PrussiaAugust
Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Augustus William of Prussia (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722 – 12 June 1758) was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother and general of Frederick II.

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War.
In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum.

Frederick William I of Prussia

Frederick William IFriedrich Wilhelm IFrederick William
Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
He was succeeded by his son, Frederick the Great.

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Sophia DorotheaQueen of PrussiaPrincess Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
She was the sister of George II, King of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick II, King of Prussia.

Enlightened absolutism

enlightened despotenlightened despotismenlightened absolutist
Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism.
Enlightened absolutism is the theme of an essay by Frederick the Great, who ruled Prussia from 1740 to 1786, defending this system of government.

Frederick I of Prussia

Frederick IFrederick IIIFrederick III of Brandenburg
The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy.
He was also the paternal grandfather of Frederick the Great.

Potsdam

DrewitzMarquardtPotsdam, Germany
Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Once Frederick secured the throne in 1740, he prevented Elisabeth from visiting his court in Potsdam, granting her instead Schönhausen Palace and apartments at the Berliner Stadtschloss.
The buildings of the royal residences were built mainly during the reign of Frederick the Great.

Hans Hermann von Katte

Hans von KatteKatte
Soon after his previous affair, he became close friends with Hans Hermann von Katte, a Prussian officer several years older than Frederick who served as one of his tutors.
Hans Hermann von Katte (28 February 1704 – 6 November 1730) was a Lieutenant of the Prussian Army, and a friend, tutor and possible lover of the future King Frederick II of Prussia, who was at the time the Crown Prince.

Maria Theresa

Empress Maria TheresaMaria TheresiaMaria Theresa of Austria
Frederick himself proposed marrying Maria Theresa of Austria in return for renouncing the succession.
Frederick II of Prussia (who became Maria Theresa's greatest rival for most of her reign) promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.

Jacques Duhan de Jandun

Jacques DuhanJacques Egide Duhan de JandunJacques Égide du Han
In spite of his father's desire that his education be entirely religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry, Greek and Roman classics, and French philosophy to supplement his official lessons.
Jacques Egide Duhan de Jandun (1685–1746) was a Huguenot soldier who served for twelve years as tutor to Frederick the Great.

Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué

FouquéGeneral Fouqué
Frederick formed the Bayard Order to discuss warfare with his friends; Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué was made the grand master of the gatherings.
Ernst Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué (4 February 1698 – 3 May 1774) was a Prussian Lieutenant general and General der Infanterie and a confidante of King Frederick the Great.

Kronprinzenpalais

Crown Prince's PalaceCrown Prince's Palace in BerlinCrown Prince Palace
In their early married life, the royal couple resided at the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin.
In 1732, Philipp Gerlach remodelled the building in baroque style with a protruding central bay and a carriage drive rising to the front entrance, to serve as a residence for the Crown Prince, the future King Frederick II.

Silesia

ŚląskSilesianSchlesien
Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia.
In 1742, most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession, eventually becoming the Prussian Province of Silesia in 1815; consequently, Silesia became part of the German Empire when it was proclaimed in 1871.

Anti-Machiavel

Antimachiavel
In 1739, Frederick finished his Anti-Machiavel, an idealistic refutation of Machiavelli.
Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, consisting of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal of The Prince, the 16th-century book by Niccolò Machiavelli, and Machiavellianism in general.

House of Hohenzollern

HohenzollernHohenzollernsHohenzollern dynasty
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William's successor, Frederick the Great gained Silesia in the Silesian Wars so that Prussia emerged as a great power.

First Silesian War

First
Accordingly, the First Silesian War (1740–1742, part of the War of the Austrian Succession) began on 16 December 1740, when Frederick invaded and quickly occupied the province.
It was the first in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid 1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Schönhausen Palace

Petit Palais
Once Frederick secured the throne in 1740, he prevented Elisabeth from visiting his court in Potsdam, granting her instead Schönhausen Palace and apartments at the Berliner Stadtschloss.
Under King Frederick II of Prussia, also known as "Frederick the Great", the palace was once again turned into a royal residence for his wife, Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, who used it as her regular summer residence from 1740–90.

Marthe de Roucoulle

He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who later became Madame de Rocoulle, and he wished that she educate his children.
She was the governess of first Frederick William I of Prussia and later of his son Frederick the Great.

Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin

SchwerinKurt von SchwerinCount Kurt Christoph von Schwerin
Believing that his army had been defeated by the Austrians, Frederick sought to avoid capture and galloped away, leaving Field Marshal Kurt Schwerin in command of the army.
Kurt Christoph, Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 – 6 May 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.