Free-space optical communication

laser communicationfree space opticsfree spaceFSOoptical laserFree Space Optical communicationcommunicate using lasersdeep space communicationsfree air secure communicationsfree space channel
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.wikipedia
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Optical communication

optical communicationsoptical networkingoptical network
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Free-space optical communication has been deployed in space, while terrestrial forms are naturally limited by geography, weather and the availability of light.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellBell, Alexander Graham
In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created the photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, DC.
Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics.

Wireless

wireless communicationwireless communicationswireless internet
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Similar to free-space optical communication, the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver.

Photophone

transmit sound
In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created the photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, DC.
The photophone was similar to a contemporary telephone, except that it used modulated light as a means of wireless transmission while the telephone relied on modulated electricity carried over a conductive wire circuit.

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.

Laser

laserslaser beamlaser light
The invention of lasers in the 1960s, revolutionized free space optics.
Lasers are used in optical disk drives, laser printers, barcode scanners, DNA sequencing instruments, fiber-optic and free-space optical communication, laser surgery and skin treatments, cutting and welding materials, military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed, and in laser lighting displays for entertainment.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
A transmission medium, also called the physical channel that carries the signal. An example of this is the "free space channel".

Infrared Data Association

IrDAinfraredinfrared port
Infrared Data Association (IrDA) technology is a very simple form of free-space optical communications.
Main characteristics of this kind of wireless optical communication is physically secure data transfer, line-of-sight (LOS) and very low bit error rate (BER) that makes it very efficient.

Laser communication in space

laser communicationlaser communicationsArtemis
Quote from Laser Communication in Space Demonstrations (EDRS) Various planned satellite constellations such as SpaceX's Starlink intended to provide global broadband coverage employ laser communication for inter-satellite links between the several hundred to thousand satellites effectively creating a space-based optical mesh network.
Laser communication in space is free-space optical communication in outer space.

Optical wireless communications

optical wireless technologies
On the communications side the FSO technology is considered as a part of the optical wireless communications applications.
On the other hand, terrestrial point-to-point OWC systems, also known as the free space optical (FSO) systems, operate at the near IR frequencies (750–1600 nm).

RONJA

Reasonable Optical Near Joint AccessRonja Metropolis
In 2001, Twibright Labs released Ronja Metropolis, an open source DIY 10 Mbit/s full duplex LED FSO over 1.4 km In 2004, a Visible Light Communication Consortium was formed in Japan.
RONJA (Reasonable Optical Near Joint Access) is a free-space optical communication system originating in the Czech Republic, developed by Karel Kulhavý of Twibright Labs and released in 2001.

Optical mesh network

mesh networksmesh optical networks
Various planned satellite constellations such as SpaceX's Starlink intended to provide global broadband coverage employ laser communication for inter-satellite links between the several hundred to thousand satellites effectively creating a space-based optical mesh network.
An optical mesh network is a type of optical telecommunications network employing wired fiber-optic communication or wireless free-space optical communication in a mesh network architecture.

Consumer IR

InfraredCIRCIR (Consumer Infrared)
This is known as consumer IR technologies.
CIR is the most common type of free-space optical communication.

Infrared

IRnear-infraredinfra-red
Many simple and inexpensive consumer remote controls use low-speed communication using infrared (IR) light.
Free space optical communication using infrared lasers can be a relatively inexpensive way to install a communications link in an urban area operating at up to 4 gigabit/s, compared to the cost of burying fiber optic cable, except for the radiation damage.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
Free-space point-to-point optical links can be implemented using infrared laser light, although low-data-rate communication over short distances is possible using LEDs.
The light from LEDs can be modulated very quickly so they are used extensively in optical fiber and free space optics communications.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Free-space optics can be used for communications between spacecraft.
Spacecraft, both robotic and crewed, utilize various communications systems for communication with terrestrial stations as well as for communication between spacecraft in space. Technologies utilized include RF and optical communication. In addition, some spacecraft payloads are explicitly for the purpose of ground–ground communication using receiver/retransmitter electronic technologies.

OPALS

Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science
NASA's OPALS announced a breakthrough in space-to-ground communication December 9, 2014, uploading 175 megabytes in 3.5 seconds.
Free-space optical communication

Visible light communication

Intelligent photonic communicationvisible light communications
In 2001, Twibright Labs released Ronja Metropolis, an open source DIY 10 Mbit/s full duplex LED FSO over 1.4 km In 2004, a Visible Light Communication Consortium was formed in Japan.
Free space optics

Li-Fi

Light FidelityIEEE 802.15.7Li-Fi network
In January 2009, a task force for visible light communication was formed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers working group for wireless personal area network standards known as IEEE 802.15.7.
Free-space optical communication

Koruza (technology)

KORUZA
KORUZA
Koruza is a Slovenian open source and open hardware project providing equipment for low-cost free-space wireless optical connections.

N-slit interferometer

-slit interferometerlaser microdensitometern''-slit interferometer
N-slit interferometer
Free-space optical communication

Optical fiber cable

fiber optic cablefiber-optic cablefibre optic cable
This contrasts with using solids such as optical fiber cable.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Ancient Greeks used a coded alphabetic system of signalling with torches developed by Cleoxenus, Democleitus and Polybius.

Polybius

Polyb.Pol.Polybian
The Ancient Greeks used a coded alphabetic system of signalling with torches developed by Cleoxenus, Democleitus and Polybius.