Free will

freedomfreewillfreedom of the willwillfreefreedom of willfree-willliberum arbitriumproblem of free willfree will and determinism
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.wikipedia
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Hard determinism

hard deterministcompletely deterministicdeterminism
The view that conceives free will as incompatible with determinism is called incompatibilism and encompasses both metaphysical libertarianism (the claim that determinism is false and thus free will is at least possible) and hard determinism (the claim that determinism is true and thus free will is not possible).
Hard determinism (or metaphysical determinism) is a view on free will which holds that determinism is true, and that it is incompatible with free will, and, therefore, that free will does not exist.

Will (philosophy)

willwillpowerhuman will
Traditionally, only actions that are freely willed are seen as deserving credit or blame.
One of the recurring questions discussed in the Western philosophical tradition is that of free will - and the related, but more general notion of fate - which asks how the will can be truly free if a person's actions have either natural or divine causes which determine them.

Libertarianism (metaphysics)

libertarianlibertarianismlibertarian free will
The view that conceives free will as incompatible with determinism is called incompatibilism and encompasses both metaphysical libertarianism (the claim that determinism is false and thus free will is at least possible) and hard determinism (the claim that determinism is true and thus free will is not possible). In contrast, "metaphysical libertarians", such as Thomas Reid, Peter van Inwagen, and Robert Kane, are those incompatibilists who accept free will and deny determinism, holding the view that some form of indeterminism is true.
Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics.

Indeterminism

chanceindeterministicChance (Ancient Greek concept)
Yet even with physical indeterminism, arguments have been made against libertarianism in that it is difficult to assign Origination (responsibility for "free" indeterministic choices).
It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism.

Moral responsibility

responsibilitypersonal responsibilityresponsibilities
Free will is closely linked to the concepts of moral responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen.
The notion of free will has become an important issue in the debate on whether individuals are ever morally responsible for their actions and, if so, in what sense.

Determinism

deterministicdeterministcausal determinism
Determinism suggests that only one course of events is possible, which is inconsistent with the existence of free will thus conceived.
Determinism is often contrasted with free will.

Agency (philosophy)

agencyhuman agencyagent
Libertarianism holds onto a concept of free will that requires that the agent be able to take more than one possible course of action under a given set of circumstances.
Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.

Neuroscience of free will

brain begins to consider taking actionsthe Libet experiment
Secondarily, these incompatibilist models are dependent upon the relationship between action and conscious volition, as studied in the neuroscience of free will.
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of topics related to free will (volition and sense of agency) using neuroscience, and the analysis of how findings from such studies may impact the free will debate.

Culpability

culpableguiltguilty
Free will is closely linked to the concepts of moral responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen.
The concept of culpability is intimately tied up with notions of agency, freedom, and free will.

Causality

causalcause and effectcausation
This includes interactionist dualism, which claims that some non-physical mind, will, or soul overrides physical causality.
The incompatibilist version of this holds that there is no such thing as "free will".

Derk Pereboom

Derk Pereboom (philosopher)
He specializes in free will and moral responsibility, philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, and in the work of Immanuel Kant.

Peter van Inwagen

van InwagenVan Inwagen, Peter
In contrast, "metaphysical libertarians", such as Thomas Reid, Peter van Inwagen, and Robert Kane, are those incompatibilists who accept free will and deny determinism, holding the view that some form of indeterminism is true.
His 1983 monograph An Essay on Free Will played an important role in rehabilitating libertarianism with respect to free will in mainstream analytical philosophy.

Robert Kane (philosopher)

Robert Kane
In contrast, "metaphysical libertarians", such as Thomas Reid, Peter van Inwagen, and Robert Kane, are those incompatibilists who accept free will and deny determinism, holding the view that some form of indeterminism is true.
Kane is one of the leading contemporary philosophers on free will.

Galen Strawson

Galen John Strawson
The contemporary philosopher Galen Strawson agrees with Locke that the truth or falsity of determinism is irrelevant to the
Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self), John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Incompatibilism

incompatibilistincompatibilistshard incompatibilism
The view that conceives free will as incompatible with determinism is called incompatibilism and encompasses both metaphysical libertarianism (the claim that determinism is false and thus free will is at least possible) and hard determinism (the claim that determinism is true and thus free will is not possible).
Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other.

John Martin Fischer

John Fischer
Deliberative indeterminism has been referenced by Daniel Dennett and John Martin Fischer.
He is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Riverside and a leading contributor to the philosophy of free will and moral responsibility.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Predeterminism is the philosophy that all events of history, past, present and future, have been decided or are known (by God, fate, or some other force), including human actions.
Do humans have free will?

Theological determinism

determinismtheologicaltheological fatalism
For example, logical and theological determinism challenge metaphysical libertarianism with ideas of destiny and fate, and biological, cultural and psychological determinism feed the development of compatibilist models. One argument asserts that an omniscient creator not only implies destiny but a form of high level predeterminism such as hard theological determinism or predestination – that they have independently fixed all events and outcomes in the universe in advance.

Sin

sinssinfulsinners
Free will is closely linked to the concepts of moral responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen.
The Jansenist movement, which the Catholic Church declared to be heretical, also maintained that original sin destroyed freedom of will.

Problem of future contingents

future contingentfuture contingentssea-battle argument
This creates a unique problem for free will given that propositions about the future already have a truth value in the present (that is it is already determined as either true or false), and is referred to as the problem of future contingents.
This conflicts with the idea of our own free choice: that we have the power to determine or control the course of events in the future, which seems impossible if what happens, or does not happen, is necessarily going to happen, or not happen.

Argument from free will

paradox of free willtheological fatalismFree will
Omniscience features as an incompatible-properties argument for the existence of God, known as the argument from free will, and is closely related to other such arguments, for example the incompatibility of omnipotence with a good creator deity (i.e. if a deity knew what they were going to choose, then they are responsible for letting them choose it).
The argument from free will, also called the paradox of free will or theological fatalism, contends that omniscience and free will are incompatible and that any conception of God that incorporates both properties is therefore inherently contradictory.

Predeterminism

necessarypre-determinedpredestinate
One argument asserts that an omniscient creator not only implies destiny but a form of high level predeterminism such as hard theological determinism or predestination – that they have independently fixed all events and outcomes in the universe in advance.
Predeterminism is difficult to discuss because its simple definition can logically lead to a variety of similar, complex (and, perhaps, better defined) concepts in metaphysics, theology, and the philosophy of free will.

Daniel Dennett

Daniel C. DennettDennettDan Dennett
Deliberative indeterminism has been referenced by Daniel Dennett and John Martin Fischer.
While he is a confirmed compatibilist on free will, in "On Giving Libertarians What They Say They Want"—chapter 15 of his 1978 book Brainstorms —Dennett articulated the case for a two-stage model of decision making in contrast to libertarian views.

Compatibilism

compatibilistCompatibilism and incompatibilismcompatibilists
In contrast, compatibilists hold that free will is compatible with determinism.
Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.

Interactionism (philosophy of mind)

Interactionisminteractionist dualisminteractionist
This includes interactionist dualism, which claims that some non-physical mind, will, or soul overrides physical causality.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia argues that a non-physical mind and mind-body interaction follow necessarily from the Catholic doctrines of the soul and free will.