Freedom of association

associationright of associationfree associationright of free associationfreedoms of associationliberty of associationright of free political associationRight to Associationand associationassociate
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.wikipedia
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Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 1111Article 11 ECHR
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of assembly and association, including the right to form trade unions, subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration on Human RightsUnited Nations Universal Declaration of Human RightsThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Freedom of association, in this sense, is recognized as a fundamental human right by a number of documents including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Labour Organization Convention C87 and Convention C98 – two of the eight fundamental, core international labour standards.

Freedom of assembly

assemblyassemblefree assembly
It is closely linked with freedom of assembly, particularly under the U.S. Bill of Rights.
Freedom of peaceful assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICCPRInternational Covenant of Civil and Political RightsInternational Convention on Civil and Political Rights
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Article 21 mandates freedom of assembly and 22 mandates freedom of association.

First Amendment to the United States Constitution

First AmendmentFirstU.S. Const. amend. I
While the United States Constitution's First Amendment identifies the rights to assemble and to petition the government, the text of the First Amendment does not make specific mention of a right to association. This limit on freedom of association results from Section 1981 of Title 42 of the United States Code, as balanced against the First Amendment in the 1976 decision of Runyon v. McCrary.
In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
In Italy the freedom of association is established in Article 18 of the Constitution, which states:
The Constitution recognises the freedom of association, within the limits of criminal law.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of Rights
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is closely linked with freedom of assembly, particularly under the U.S. Bill of Rights.
In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.

National Labor Relations Act of 1935

National Labor Relations ActWagner ActNational Labor Relations Act 1935
The Act aims to correct the "inequality of bargaining power between employees who, according to the Act's proponents, do not possess full freedom of association or actual liberty of contract and employers who are organized in the corporate or other forms of ownership association".

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
Freedom of association is manifested through the right to join a trade union, to engage in free speech or to participate in debating societies, political parties, or any other club or association, including religious denominations and organizations, fraternities, and sport clubs and not to be compelled to belong an association. Nevertheless, the United States Supreme Court held in NAACP v. Alabama (1958) that freedom of association is an essential part of freedom of speech because, in many cases, people can engage in effective speech only when they join with others.
"Voice and Accountability" within a country, defined as "the extent to which a country's citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and free media" is one of the six dimensions of governance that the Worldwide Governance Indicators measure for more than 200 countries.

Constitution of South Africa

ConstitutionSouth African ConstitutionConstitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
The South African Constitution's Bill of Rights establishes the right to freedom of association in Section 18, which states "Everyone has the right to freedom of association."

Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949

Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention98Right to Organize
Freedom of association, in this sense, is recognized as a fundamental human right by a number of documents including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Labour Organization Convention C87 and Convention C98 – two of the eight fundamental, core international labour standards.
Its counterpart on the general principle of freedom of association is the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1949) No 87.

Roberts v. United States Jaycees

Roberts v. U.S. Jaycees
In Roberts v. United States Jaycees, the U.S. Supreme Court held that associations may not exclude people for reasons unrelated to the group's expression.

Collective bargaining

collectively bargaincollective bargaining agreementbargain collectively
In the international labour movement, the freedom of association is a right identified under international labour standards as the right of workers to organize and collectively bargain.
Item 2(a) of the International Labour Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines the "freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining" as an essential right of workers.

NAACP v. Alabama

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. AlabamaNAACP v. Alabama ex rel. Pattersonbanned the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Nevertheless, the United States Supreme Court held in NAACP v. Alabama (1958) that freedom of association is an essential part of freedom of speech because, in many cases, people can engage in effective speech only when they join with others.

United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and of Association

Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of associationFreedoms of Peaceful Assembly and of AssociationUN Special Rapporteur
The United Nations special rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association works independently to inform and advise the United Nations Human Rights Council.

Runyon v. McCrary

ruled similarly
This limit on freedom of association results from Section 1981 of Title 42 of the United States Code, as balanced against the First Amendment in the 1976 decision of Runyon v. McCrary.
The Court acknowledged that parents had the right to send their children to schools that "promote the belief [of] racial segregation," but that neither parents' nor students' freedom of association was violated by the application of 42 U.S.C. §1981.

Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston

Hurley v. GLIBruled against themSupreme Court case
However, in the subsequent decisions of Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston, the Court ruled that a group may exclude people from membership if their presence would affect the group's ability to advocate a particular point of view.

Civil liberties

individual libertypersonal freedomcivil liberty
The Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees in theory many of the same rights and civil liberties as the U.S. except to bear arms, i.e.: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association and assembly, freedom to choose language, to due process, to a fair trial, privacy, freedom to vote, right for education, etc. However, human rights groups like Amnesty International have warned that Vladimir Putin has seriously curtailed freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and freedom of association amidst growing authoritarianism.

Free association (Marxism and anarchism)

free associationfree association of producersfree associations

Collective action

collective action problemscollective action problemact collectively
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

Club (organization)

clubclubsclubhouse
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

Individual and group rights

individual rightscollective rightsindividual right
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

European Convention on Human Rights

European Convention of Human RightsECHRConvention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Charter of Rights and FreedomsCharterCharter of Rights
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nations
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.