Freedom of the press

press freedompressfreedom of pressfree pressthe pressmedia freedomFreedom of the mediafreedomliberty of the pressmedia
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.wikipedia
1,460 Related Articles

Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect JournalistsCPJCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
CPJ promotes press freedom and defends the rights of journalists.

Press Freedom Index

World Press Freedom Indexpress freedomWorldwide Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index list is based on responses to surveys sent to journalists that are members of partner organizations of the RWB, as well as related specialists such as researchers, jurists, and human rights activists. In its 2018 Press Freedom Index, Reporters without borders ranked Pakistan number 139 out of 180 countries based on freedom of the press.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.


TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Turkey, China and Egypt accounted for more than half of all journalists jailed globally.
Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, and undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press.


DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
In 2016, the countries where press was the most free were Finland, Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and New Zealand, followed by Costa Rica, Switzerland, Sweden, Ireland and Jamaica.
The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, and quality of life, as well as happiness.

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression.
However, freedom of the press does not necessarily enable freedom of speech.

Freedom of the Press (report)

Freedom of the PressFreedom of the Press reportFreedom of the Press'' report
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-profit organization Freedom House.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.

State media

state broadcasterstate-ownedstate
The public interest theory suggests that more benign governments should have higher levels of control of the media which would in turn increase press freedom as well as economic and political freedoms.


In some countries, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and internet democracy are considered important to ensure that voters are well informed, enabling them to vote according to their own interests.

IFEX (organization)

IFEXInternational Freedom of Expression ExchangeInternational Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX)
IFEX's mandate is to raise awareness by sharing information online and mobilising action on issues such as press freedom, Internet censorship, freedom of information legislation, criminal defamation and insult laws, media concentration and attacks on the free expression rights of all people, including journalists, writers, artists, musicians, filmmakers, academics, scientists, human rights defenders and Internet users.

John Milton

Fifty years earlier, at a time of civil war, John Milton wrote his pamphlet Areopagitica (1644).
Writing in English, Latin, Greek, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagitica (1644), written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship, is among history's most influential and impassioned defences of freedom of speech and freedom of the press.


People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Turkey, China and Egypt accounted for more than half of all journalists jailed globally. The country with the least degree of press freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Turkmenistan, Syria, China, Vietnam and Sudan.
The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.

The New York Times

New York TimesNY TimesNYT
According to the New York Times, "Britain has a long tradition of a free, inquisitive press", but "[u]nlike the United States, Britain has no constitutional guarantee of press freedom."
The paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan.

William Hone

HoneW. Hone
The December 1817 Trials of writer and satirist William Hone for publishing three political pamphlets is considered a landmark in the fight for a free press.
His victorious court battle against government censorship in 1817 marked a turning point in the fight for British press freedom.

Fundamental rights

fundamental rightfundamental freedomsbasic rights
Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens, as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.


This era saw the establishment of freedom of the press as a legal norm, as President Theodore Roosevelt tried and failed to sue newspapers for reporting corruption in his handling of the purchase of the Panama Canal.

Marketplace of ideas

a free and open encounterfree marketthe more widely available
In order to be able to exercise this ration right, the individual must have unlimited access to the ideas of his fellow men in “a free and open encounter." From Milton's writings developed the concept of the open marketplace of ideas, the idea that when people argue against each other, the good arguments will prevail. One form of speech that was widely restricted in England was seditious libel, and laws were in place that made criticizing the government a crime. The King was above public criticism and statements critical of the government were forbidden, according to the English Court of the Star Chamber. Truth was not a defense to seditious libel because the goal was to prevent and punish all condemnation of the government.
The concept is often applied to discussions of patent law as well as freedom of the press and the responsibilities of the media in a liberal democracy.


Viet NamSocialist Republic of VietnamViệt Nam
The country with the least degree of press freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Turkmenistan, Syria, China, Vietnam and Sudan.
Other human rights issues concern freedom of association, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press.

John Peter Zenger

Peter ZengerZenger casea journalist
The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in 1734, where the governor brought John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after the publication of satirical attacks.
He was accused of libel in 1734 by William Cosby, the royal governor of New York, but the jury acquitted Zenger, who became a symbol for freedom of the press.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
After the abolition of the monarchy in 1946 and the abrogation of the Statute in 1948, the Constitution of the Republic of Italy guarantees the freedom of the press, as stated in Article 21, Paragraphs 2 and 3:
Freedom of expression, press and religion are guaranteed in public places, except for those acts which are considered offensive by public morality.

Editorial independence

editorially independentindependenceeditorial freedom
It is known to subjectively measure the level of freedom and editorial independence that is enjoyed by the press in every nation and significant disputed territories around the world.

Reporters Without Borders

Reporters sans frontièresReporters Sans FrontieresWorldwide Press Freedom Index
In its 2018 Press Freedom Index, Reporters without borders ranked Pakistan number 139 out of 180 countries based on freedom of the press.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), also known under its original name Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Paris that conducts political advocacy on issues relating to freedom of information and freedom of the press.

Anders Chydenius

One of the world's first freedom of the press acts was introduced in Sweden in 1766, mainly due to classical liberal member of parliament, Ostrobothnian priest, Anders Chydenius.
He was elected as an ecclesiastic member of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates in 1765–66, in which his Cap party seized the majority and government and championed Sweden's first Freedom of the Press Act, the most liberal in the world along with those of Great Britain and the Seven United Provinces.


SudaneseRepublic of SudanRepublic of the Sudan
The country with the least degree of press freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Turkmenistan, Syria, China, Vietnam and Sudan.
Sudan ranks 172 of 180 countries in terms of freedom of the press according to Reporters Without Borders.


Censorship by country collects information on censorship, internet censorship, press freedom, freedom of speech, and human rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information.

Media of Bangladesh

Eastern News AgencyBangladeshi mediaMedia in Bangladesh
Bangladeshi media is reportedly following a self-censorship due to a controversial act named as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act.
The Constitution guarantees press freedom and freedom of expression within "reasonable restriction", though some media outlets have been harassed.