Freezing

solidificationfrozenfreezefreezessolidifiedsolidifiesfreeze upfreezing conditionsfrozefrozen body
Freezing is a phase transition where a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.wikipedia
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Crystallization

crystallizecrystallisationcrystallized
Most liquids freeze by crystallization, formation of crystalline solid from the uniform liquid.
Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, freezing, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas.

Melting point

freezing pointmelting temperaturemelting
For example, agar displays a hysteresis in its melting point and freezing point. In spite of the second law of thermodynamics, crystallization of pure liquids usually begins at a lower temperature than the melting point, due to high activation energy of homogeneous nucleation.
For most substances, melting and freezing points are approximately equal.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
Most liquids freeze by crystallization, formation of crystalline solid from the uniform liquid.
The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification.

Crystal growth

growngrowthcrystal growing
Crystallization consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth.
Note that in a typical solidification or crystallization process, the thermodynamic driving force is dictated by the degree of supercooling.

Latent heat

Latent heat fluxlatentlatent energy
The energy released upon freezing is a latent heat, and is known as the enthalpy of fusion and is exactly the same as the energy required to melt the same amount of the solid.
Latent heat is associated with the change of phase of atmospheric or ocean water, vaporization, condensation, freezing or melting, whereas sensible heat is energy transferred that is evident in change of the temperature of the atmosphere or ocean, or ice, without those phase changes, though it is associated with changes of pressure and volume.

Cryoprotectant

cryoprotectantscryoprotectiveantifreezing compounds
Most living organisms accumulate cryoprotectants such as anti-nucleating proteins, polyols, and glucose to protect themselves against frost damage by sharp ice crystals.
A cryoprotectant is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e. that due to ice formation).

Glass transition

glass transition temperaturevitrifiedvitrification
Such materials are characterized by a glass transition that occurs at a glass transition temperature, which may be roughly defined as the "knee" point of the material's density vs. temperature graph.
This transition is in contrast to the freezing or crystallization transition, which is a first-order phase transition in the Ehrenfest classification and involves discontinuities in thermodynamic and dynamic properties such as volume, energy, and viscosity.

Frost

hoar frosthoarfrostfrost-free
Most living organisms accumulate cryoprotectants such as anti-nucleating proteins, polyols, and glucose to protect themselves against frost damage by sharp ice crystals.
Frost is a thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor in an above freezing atmosphere coming in contact with a solid surface whose temperature is below freezing, and resulting in a phase change from water vapor (a gas) to ice (a solid) as the water vapor reaches the freezing point.

Liquid nitrogen

liquid-nitrogenNitrogencryodestruction employing liquid
The nematode Haemonchus contortus can survive 44 weeks frozen at liquid nitrogen temperatures.
As a cryogenic fluid that rapidly freezes living tissue, its handling and storage require Thermal insulation.

Cryobiology

cryobiologistcryobiologicalcryobiologis
See cryobiology for a full discussion.
This usually requires the addition of substances which protect the cells during freezing and thawing (cryoprotectants), 3) preservation of organs under hypothermic conditions for transplantation, 4) lyophilization (freeze-drying) of pharmaceuticals, 5) cryosurgery, a (minimally) invasive approach for the destruction of unhealthy tissue using cryogenic gases/fluids, and 6) physics of supercooling, ice nucleation/growth and mechanical engineering aspects of heat transfer during cooling and warming, as applied to biological systems.

Cryopreservation

cryopreservedvitrificationcryogenically frozen
Human gametes and 2-, 4- and 8-cell embryos can survive freezing and are viable for up to 10 years, a process known as cryopreservation.
Water-bears (Tardigrada), microscopic multicellular organisms, can survive freezing by replacing most of their internal water with the sugar trehalose, preventing it from crystallization that otherwise damages cell membranes.

Food preservation

preservationpreservedfood preservative
Freezing is a common method of food preservation that slows both food decay and the growth of micro-organisms.
Freezing is also one of the most commonly used processes, both commercially and domestically, for preserving a very wide range of foods, including prepared foods that would not have required freezing in their unprepared state.

Mpemba effect

MpembaErasto MpembaMpemba paradox
The Mpemba effect is a process in which hot water can freeze faster than cold water.

Micro-pulling-down

Continuous solidification of the melt is progressed on a liquid/solid interface positioned under the crucible.

Phase transition

phase transitionsorder parameterphase change
Freezing is a phase transition where a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.

Liquid

liquidsliquid phaseliquid state
Freezing is a phase transition where a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.

Solid

solidsssolid state
Freezing is a phase transition where a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.

Temperature

temperaturesair temperaturewarm
Freezing is a phase transition where a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.

Cooling

Cooling Equipment
In accordance with the internationally established definition, freezing means the solidification phase change of a liquid or the liquid content of a substance, usually due to cooling.

Agar

agar-agaragar agaragar gel
For example, agar displays a hysteresis in its melting point and freezing point.

Hysteresis

hysteretichysteresis loophysteresis loss
For example, agar displays a hysteresis in its melting point and freezing point.

Nucleation

nucleatenucleatingnucleated
Crystallization consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth. In spite of the second law of thermodynamics, crystallization of pure liquids usually begins at a lower temperature than the melting point, due to high activation energy of homogeneous nucleation.

Nanometre

nmnanometernanometers
Nucleation is the step wherein the molecules start to gather into clusters, on the nanometer scale, arranging in a defined and periodic manner that defines the crystal structure.

Crystal structure

unit celllatticecrystal lattice
Nucleation is the step wherein the molecules start to gather into clusters, on the nanometer scale, arranging in a defined and periodic manner that defines the crystal structure.

Second law of thermodynamics

second lawsecond2nd law of thermodynamics
In spite of the second law of thermodynamics, crystallization of pure liquids usually begins at a lower temperature than the melting point, due to high activation energy of homogeneous nucleation.