French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionaryFrenchFrench revolutionaryThe French RevolutionFrench Revolution of 1789French revolutionariesRevolutionary periodRévolution
The French Revolution (Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789.wikipedia
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French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

Kingdom of France

FranceFrenchFranco
The French Revolution (Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789.
France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was abolished in 1792 during the French Revolution.

Causes of the French Revolution

verge of bankruptcy and revolutionfiscal and agricultural crisisFrance's fiscal crisis
The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians.
In order to resolve the crisis, the king summoned the Estates-General in May 1789 and, as it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estates formed a National Assembly, against the wishes of the king, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Absolute monarchy

absolutismabsolutistabsolute monarch
Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.
The popularity of the notion of absolute monarchy declined substantially after the French Revolution, which promoted theories of government based on popular sovereignty.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789.
French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution.

Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on VersaillesOctober DaysThe March on Versailles
During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate (commoners) took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, and the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October.
The Women's March on Versailles, also known as the October March, the October Days or simply the March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.

Louis XVI and the Legislative Assembly

Legislative AssemblyThe Legislative Assembly and the fall of the French monarchydeposition of Louis XVI
The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church in France perforce underwent radical restructuring.

Maximilien Robespierre

RobespierreMaximilien de RobespierreMaximilian Robespierre
Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution.

Storming of the Bastille

fall of the BastilleBastillestormed the Bastille
During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate (commoners) took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, and the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October.
The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.

Battle of Valmy

ValmyValmy 1792Cannonade of Valmy
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy.
The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.

Reign of Terror

the TerrorTerrorFrench Terror
The dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church (dechristianised society) and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, and the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established in which multiple massacres and public executions occurred in response to revolutionary fervor, anti-clerical sentiment, and frivolous accusations of treason by Maximilien Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety.

Execution of Louis XVI

executionexecutedexecution of King Louis XVI
In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
The execution of Louis XVI by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.

French Republican calendar

French Revolutionary CalendarRepublican CalendarYear II
The dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church (dechristianised society) and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, and the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies.
The French Republican calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.

Napoleon

Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond.
Napoléon Bonaparte (, ; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Right-wing politics

right-wingrightright wing
The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution (1789–1799) and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime.

French Directory

DirectoryDirectoireDirectorate
After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution.

Committee of Public Safety

Comité de salut publicCommittee for Public SafetyC.P.S.
The dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church (dechristianised society) and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, and the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies.
The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public), created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto, interim, and executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with France
Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and later the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars.
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.

Thermidorian Reaction

Thermidorean Reaction9th ThermidorThermidor
After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
The Thermidorian Reaction (Réaction thermidorienne or Convention thermidorienne, "Thermidorian Convention") is the common term, in the historiography of the French Revolution, for the period between the ousting of Maximilien Robespierre on 9 Thermidor II, or 27 July 1794, to the inauguration of the French Directory on 1 November 1795.

Seven Years' War

Seven Years’ WarSeven Years WarThe Seven Years' War
Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt.
The war restructured not only the European political order, but also affected events all around the world, paving the way for the beginning of later British world supremacy in the 19th century, the rise of Prussia in Germany (eventually replacing Austria as the leading German State), the beginning of tensions in British North America, as well as a clear sign of France's eventual turmoil.

La Marseillaise

MarseillaiseFrench national anthemLa Marsellaise
Its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later.
As the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries.

General Maximum

MaximumMaximum Price ActLaw of the Maximum
The dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church (dechristianised society) and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, and the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies.
The Law of the General Maximum (Loi du Maximum général) was instituted during the French Revolution on 29 September 1793, setting price limits and punishing price gouging in order to ensure the continued supply of food to the French people.

Palace of Versailles

VersaillesChâteau de VersaillesChateau de Versailles
A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles, which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles ) was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIVKing Louis XIVKing Louis XIV of France
A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles, which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV.
By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.

Liberté, égalité, fraternité

Liberty, Equality, Fraternityliberty, equality and fraternityliberty, equality, and fraternity
Its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later.
Although it finds its origins in the French Revolution, it was then only one motto among others and was not institutionalized until the Third Republic at the end of the 19th century.