A report on French Revolutionary Wars

Anonymous caricature depicting the treatment given to the Brunswick Manifesto by the French population
While the First Coalition attacked the new Republic, France faced civil war and counter-revolutionary guerrilla war. Here, several insurgents of the Chouannerie have been taken prisoner.
General Jourdan at the battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794
Armée des Émigrés at the Battle of Quiberon
Capture of the Dutch fleet by the French hussars
General Bonaparte and his troops crossing the bridge of Arcole
Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Lodi
Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Rivoli
Soldiers killed in battle in 1797
In July 1798, French forces under Napoleon annihilated an Egyptian army at the Battle of the Pyramids. The victory facilitated the conquest of Egypt and remains one of the most important battles of the era.
Battle of the Nile, August 1798. The British fleet bears down on the French line.
The Battle of Abukir in 1799
The Battle of Mount Tabor against the Ottomans
Russian General Alexander Suvorov crossing the St. Gotthard Pass during the Italian and Swiss expedition in 1799
Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David. In one of the famous paintings of Napoleon, the Consul and his army are depicted crossing the Swiss Alps on their way to Italy. The daring maneuver surprised the Austrians and forced a decisive engagement at Marengo in June 1800. Victory there allowed Napoleon to strengthen his political position back in France.
General Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden, a decisive French victory in Bavaria which precipitated the end of the Revolutionary Wars
First Battle of Algeciras
The armies of the Revolution at Jemappes in 1792. With chaos internally and enemies on the borders, the French were in a period of uncertainty during the early years of the Revolutionary Wars. By 1797, however, France dominated much of Western Europe, conquering the Rhineland, the Netherlands, and the Italian peninsula while erecting a series of sister republics and puppet states stretching from Spain to the German heartland.

The French Revolutionary Wars (Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

- French Revolutionary Wars
Anonymous caricature depicting the treatment given to the Brunswick Manifesto by the French population

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The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812

Napoleon

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The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Napoleon's father, Carlo Buonaparte, was Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI.
Statue of Napoleon as a schoolboy in Brienne, aged 15, by Louis Rochet (1853)
Napoleon Bonaparte, aged 23, as lieutenant-colonel of a battalion of Corsican Republican volunteers. Portrait by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux
Bonaparte at the Siege of Toulon
Journée du 13 Vendémiaire, artillery fire in front of the Church of Saint-Roch, Paris, Rue Saint-Honoré
Bonaparte at the Pont d'Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (c. 1801), Musée du Louvre, Paris
Bonaparte during the Italian campaign in 1797
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx (c. 1886) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle
Battle of the Pyramids on 21 July 1798 by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, 1808
General Bonaparte surrounded by members of the Council of Five Hundred during the Coup of 18 Brumaire, by François Bouchot
Bonaparte, First Consul, by Ingres. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.
Silver coin: 5 francs_AN XI, 1802, Bonaparte, First Consul
Silver coin: 5 francs, 1811
The Battle of Marengo was Napoleon's first great victory as head of state.
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totalled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David (1804)
Napoleon's throne room at Fontainebleau
Napoleon and the Grande Armée receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the Battle of Ulm in October 1805. The decisive finale of the Ulm Campaign raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000. With the Austrian army destroyed, Vienna would fall to the French in November.
Napoléon in his coronation robes by François Gérard, c. 1805
Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard 1805. The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's many victories, where the French Empire defeated the Third Coalition.
The Iranian envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meeting with Napoleon I at the Finckenstein Palace in West Prussia, 27 April 1807, to sign the Treaty of Finckenstein
Napoleon reviewing the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena
The Treaties of Tilsit: Napoleon meeting with Alexander I of Russia on a raft in the middle of the Neman River
Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, as King of Spain
Napoleon accepting the surrender of Madrid, 4 December 1808
Napoleon at the Battle of Wagram, painted by Horace Vernet
The entry of Napoleon in Schönbrunn, Vienna
The French Empire at its greatest extent in 1812:
Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow in September 1812, by Adam Albrecht (1841)
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, painting by Adolph Northen
Napoleon's farewell to his Imperial Guard, 20 April 1814, by Antoine-Alphonse Montfort
Napoleon after his abdication in Fontainebleau, 4 April 1814, by Paul Delaroche
Napoleon leaving Elba on 26 February 1815, by Joseph Beaume (1836)
Napoleon's Return from Elba, by Charles de Steuben, 1818
Napoleon on Saint Helena, watercolor by Franz Josef Sandmann, c. 1820
Longwood House, Saint Helena, site of Napoleon's captivity
Frederick Marryat's sketch of Napoleon's body on his deathbed
Death mask of Napoleon
Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides in Paris
Napoleon's remains passing through Jamestown, St Helena on 13 October 1840
Napoleon on His Death Bed, by Horace Vernet, 1826
Situation of Napoleon's body when his coffin was reopened on St Helena, by Jules Rigo, 1840
Reorganisation of the religious geography: France is divided into 59 dioceses and 10 ecclesiastical provinces.
Leaders of the Catholic Church taking the civil oath required by the Concordat
Napoleon visiting the Palais Royal for the opening of the 8th session of the Tribunat in 1807, by Merry-Joseph Blondel
Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that often served as his personal escort, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.
First remittance of the Légion d'Honneur, 15 July 1804, at Saint-Louis des Invalides, by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1812)
First page of the 1804 original edition of the Code Civil
Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville unveiled by Napoleon III in 1858. Napoleon I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions.
The Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya, showing Spanish resisters being executed by French troops
A mass grave of soldiers killed at the Battle of Waterloo
1814 caricature of Napoleon being exiled to Elba: the ex-emperor is riding a donkey backwards while holding a broken sword.
Ceramic pitcher of Bonaparte: Where is he going to. To Elba. (Musée de la Révolution française).
Bas-relief of Napoleon in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives
Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of her marriage under the Napoleonic Code, painting by Henri Frédéric Schopin, 1843
Marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise by Georges Rouget, 1843
Napoleon Crossing the Alps, romantic version by Jacques-Louis David in 1805
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, realist version by Paul Delaroche in 1848

Napoleon, also Napoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), and later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

Louis XVI, who came to the throne in 1774

French Revolution

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Period of radical political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended with the formation of the French Consulate in November 1799.

Period of radical political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended with the formation of the French Consulate in November 1799.

Louis XVI, who came to the throne in 1774
By 1789, France was the most populous country in Europe.
The regional Parlements in 1789; note area covered by the Parlement de Paris
Caricature of the Third Estate carrying the First Estate (clergy) and the Second Estate (nobility) on its back
Meeting of the Estates General on 5 May 1789 at Versailles
The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789; the iconic event of the Revolution, still commemorated each year as Bastille Day
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 26 August 1789
In this caricature, monks and nuns enjoy their new freedom after the decree of 16 February 1790.
The Fête de la Fédération on 14 July 1790 celebrated the establishment of the constitutional monarchy.
After the Flight to Varennes; the Royal family are escorted back to Paris
The storming of the Tuileries Palace, 10 August 1792
Execution of Louis XVI in the Place de la Concorde, facing the empty pedestal where the statue of his grandfather, Louis XV previously stood
The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David (1793)
Nine émigrés are executed by guillotine, 1793
Georges Danton; Robespierre's close friend and Montagnard leader, executed 5 April 1794
The execution of Robespierre on 28 July 1794 marked the end of the Reign of Terror.
Former Viscount and Montagnard Paul Barras, who took part in the Thermidorean reaction and later headed the French Directory
Troops under Napoleon fire on Royalist insurgents in Paris, 5 October 1795
Napoléon Bonaparte in the Council of 500 during 18 Brumaire, 9 November 1799
French victory at the Battle of Valmy on 20 September 1792 validated the Revolutionary idea of armies composed of citizens
Napoleon's Italian campaigns reshaped the map of Italy
The Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
A copy of L'Ami du peuple stained with the blood of Marat
Marche des Marseillois, 1792, satirical etching, London
Cartoon attacking the excesses of the Revolution as symbolised by the guillotine
A sans-culotte and Tricoloure
Club of patriotic women in a church
Olympe de Gouges, Girondist author of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, executed in November 1793
Early Assignat of 29 September 1790: 500 livres
The 1793 War in the Vendée was in part sparked by opposition to state persecution of the Catholic church
The Brabant Revolution broke out in the Austrian Netherlands in October 1789, inspired by the revolution in neighbouring France, but had collapsed by the end of 1790.

Opposition from external powers like Austria, Britain, and Prussia resulted in the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in April 1792.

French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy in 1792

Napoleonic Wars

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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major global conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European states formed into various coalitions.

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major global conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European states formed into various coalitions.

French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy in 1792
Bonaparte defeating the Austrians at the Battle of Rivoli in 1797
French victory over the Austrians and Russians at the Second Battle of Zürich
The British victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria, resulted in the end of Napoleon's military presence in Egypt.
"Maniac-raving's-or-Little Boney in a strong fit" by James Gillray. His caricatures ridiculing Napoleon greatly annoyed the Frenchman, who wanted them suppressed by the British government.
The Battle of San Domingo, 6 February 1806
The Battle of the Pyrenees, July 1813
The British managed to occupy and take control of Cape Colony, British Guiana, Malta, Mauritius and Ceylon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The British HMS Sandwich fires at the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) in the battle of Trafalgar. Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). HMS Sandwich did not fight at Trafalgar and her depiction is a mistake by the painter.
European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition
Surrender of the town of Ulm, 20 October 1805
The French entering Vienna on 13 November 1805
After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806.
Charge of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry against French cuirassiers at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807
The Battle of Trangen during the Dano–Swedish War, 1808–1809. The Norwegians fought bravely and defeated the Swedes.
Polish cavalry at the Battle of Somosierra in Spain, 1808
Napoleon accepting the surrender of Madrid during the Peninsular War
The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes, by Francisco de Goya (1814)
The strategic situation in Europe in February 1809
The French Empire in 1812 at its greatest extent
Political map of the Americas in 1794
The Battle of Borodino as depicted by Louis Lejeune. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen
Charles Joseph Minard's graph of the decreasing size of the Grande Armée represented by the width of the line as it marches to Moscow (tan) and back (black)
Fragment from the manuscript "Memoires on Napoleon's campaigns, experienced as a soldier of the second regiment". Written by Joseph Abbeel, a soldier participating in the War of the Sixth Coalition, 1805–1815.
The Battle of Leipzig involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The Battle of Hanau (30–31 October 1813), took part between Austro-Bavarian and French forces.
Russian army enters Paris, 31 March 1814
Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford
Map of the Waterloo campaign
The charge of the French Cuirassiers at the Battle of Waterloo against a square of Scottish Highlanders
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815
In 1800, Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo.
Napoleon on the field of Eylau
Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. His Grande Armée had lost about half a million men.
The Battle of Trafalgar
French soldiers in skirmish with Bashkirs and Cossacks in 1813
Goya's The Disasters of War, showing French atrocities against Spanish civilians

The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the French Revolutionary Wars consisting of the War of the First Coalition (1792–1797) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802).

General Wurmser surrenders to General Sérurier.

Siege of Mantua (1796–1797)

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During the siege of Mantua, which lasted from 4 July 1796 to 2 February 1797 with a short break, French forces under the overall command of Napoleon Bonaparte besieged and blockaded a large Austrian garrison at Mantua for many months until it surrendered.

During the siege of Mantua, which lasted from 4 July 1796 to 2 February 1797 with a short break, French forces under the overall command of Napoleon Bonaparte besieged and blockaded a large Austrian garrison at Mantua for many months until it surrendered.

General Wurmser surrenders to General Sérurier.
General Wurmser surrenders to General Sérurier.
Siege of Mantua campaign map
Battle of Castiglione, 5 August 1796
Battle of Bassano, 8 September 1796
La Favorita Palace was the scene of several actions
Battle of Arcole, showing Bonaparte leading his troops across the bridge
Battle of Rivoli, showing the French driving Prince Reuss' troops into the Pontare
La Favorita Palace was the scene of several actions

The siege occurred during the War of the First Coalition, which is part of the French Revolutionary Wars.

General Dampierre leading the French troops at the Battle of Jemmapes, November 1792, in an early 20th-century painting by Raymond Desvarreux

French Revolutionary Army

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General Dampierre leading the French troops at the Battle of Jemmapes, November 1792, in an early 20th-century painting by Raymond Desvarreux
General Dampierre leading the French troops at the Battle of Jemmapes, November 1792, in an early 20th-century painting by Raymond Desvarreux
French line grenadier during the Revolution
The Battle of Valmy (1792) was a decisive victory for the French.
French Revolutionary général, officer d'infanterie legere and soldier of a demi-brigade de ligne.
French Republican soldiers
French soldiers from the 1798–1801 Egyptian campaign (left to right, clockwise): line infantry officer, line infantryman, line drummer, light infantryman.
Hussar, line cavalryman and line infantryman, 1795–96.
Pierre Augereau
Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte
Napoleon Bonaparte
Jean François Carteaux
Louis Charles Antoine Desaix
Jacques François Dugommier
Alexandre Dumas
Charles François Dumouriez
Lazare Hoche
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
François Christophe Kellermann
Jean Baptiste Kléber
Étienne-Jacques MacDonald
André Masséna
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Charles Pichegru
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Jean Nicolas Houchard

The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French land force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1804.

James Gillray, The first Kiss this Ten Years! —or—the meeting of Britannia & Citizen François (1803)

Treaty of Amiens

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The Treaty of Amiens (la paix d'Amiens, ) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom at the end of the War of the Second Coalition.

The Treaty of Amiens (la paix d'Amiens, ) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom at the end of the War of the Second Coalition.

James Gillray, The first Kiss this Ten Years! —or—the meeting of Britannia & Citizen François (1803)
Britain's foreign secretary Robert Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury, portrait by Thomas Lawrence
Charles Cornwallis, portraited by John Singleton Copley c. undefined 1795
Joseph Bonaparte, portraited by Luigi Toro
Page of the Treaty with the eight seals and the eight signatures of the signatories
"Maniac-raving's-or-Little Boney in a strong fit" by James Gillray. His caricatures ridiculing Napoleon greatly annoyed the Frenchman, who did not believe that the British government was uninvolved.

It marked the end of the French Revolutionary Wars; after a short peace it set the stage for the Napoleonic Wars.

Moreau at Hohenlinden (Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles)

Battle of Hohenlinden

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Moreau at Hohenlinden (Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles)
Moreau at Hohenlinden (Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles)
Archduke John
Jean Victor Moreau
Plan of battle, from Schirmer's Kriegsgeschichtlicher Atlas
Paul Grenier
Hohenlinden: Richepanse's march
Michel Ney
Franz Lauer

The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800 during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Painting of the Battle of Valmy by Horace Vernet from 1826. The white-uniformed infantry to the right are regulars while the blue-coated ranks to the left represent the citizen volunteers of 1791. The Moulin de Valmy was burnt on the orders of Kellermann on the day of the battle.

Battle of Valmy

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Painting of the Battle of Valmy by Horace Vernet from 1826. The white-uniformed infantry to the right are regulars while the blue-coated ranks to the left represent the citizen volunteers of 1791. The Moulin de Valmy was burnt on the orders of Kellermann on the day of the battle.
Painting of the Battle of Valmy by Horace Vernet from 1826. The white-uniformed infantry to the right are regulars while the blue-coated ranks to the left represent the citizen volunteers of 1791. The Moulin de Valmy was burnt on the orders of Kellermann on the day of the battle.
Valmy obelisk with statue of Kellermann
A modern replica of the windmill at Valmy stands amid a memorial site.

The Battle of Valmy, also known as the Cannonade of Valmy, was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.

Portrait by Antoine-François Callet, 1789

Louis XVI

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The last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

The last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

Portrait by Antoine-François Callet, 1789
Portrait by Antoine-François Callet, 1789
The young duc de Berry (right) with his younger brother, the comte de Provence (portrait by François-Hubert Drouais, 1757)
The duc de Berry as a young boy. Portrait artributed to Pierre Jouffroy
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, with her three eldest children, Marie Thérèse, Louis-Charles and Louis-Joseph, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Louis XVI in early adulthood
Louis-Charles, the dauphin of France and future Louis XVII, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet, 1786
Surrender of Cornwallis to French (left) and American (right) troops, at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, by John Trumbull
Louis XVI distributing money to the poor of Versailles, during the brutal winter of 1788
"Le Couronnement de Louis XVI", by Benjamin Duvivier, honoring the 11 June 1775 coronation of Louis XVI
Louis XVI visiting Cherbourg in June 1786, on the occasion of the work to put in place a dike (1817)
Louis XVI receiving the ambassadors of Tippu Sultan in 1788, Voyer after Emile Wattier, 19th century
Louis XVI giving La Pérouse his instructions, by Nicolas-André Monsiau
One Louis d'or, 1788, depicting Louis XVI
Silver coin: 1 écu – Louis XVI, 1784
Tinted etching of Louis XVI, 1792. The caption refers to the date of the Tennis Court Oath and concludes, "The same Louis XVI who bravely waits until his fellow citizens return to their hearths to plan a secret war and exact his revenge."
The return of the royal family to Paris on 25 June 1791, coloured copperplate after a drawing of Jean-Louis Prieur
The Storming of the Tuileries Palace, on 10 August 1792 (Musée de la Révolution française)
Louis XVI imprisoned at the Tour du Temple (by Jean-François Garneray)
Execution of Louis XVI in the Place de la Révolution. The empty pedestal in front of him had supported an equestrian statue of his grandfather, Louis XV. When the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792, the statue was torn down and sent to be melted.
Memorial to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, sculptures by Edme Gaulle and Pierre Petitot in the Basilica of Saint-Denis
The Duchess of Angoulême at the deathbed of Henry Essex Edgeworth, last confessor to Louis XVI, by Alexandre-Toussaint Menjaud, 1817

His unsuccessful flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention.

French troops entering Rome in 1798

Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars

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French troops entering Rome in 1798
French troops entering Rome in 1798
Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David.
General Bonaparte and his troops crossing the bridge of Arcole
Political map of Italy after the treaty of Campo Formio, 1797
Russian troops under Generalissimo Suvorov crossing the Alps in 1799.
Suvorov monument in the Swiss Alps

The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.