French Third Republic

FranceThird RepublicFrenchThird French RepublicFrench RepublicThirdFrench governmentRepublicFrench EmpireHistory of France during World War I
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.wikipedia
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Battle of France

Fall of FranceFranceinvasion of France
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire (and later, the Third French Republic) and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Second French Empire (Second Empire), officially the French Empire (Empire français), was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
World WarII is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.

Vichy France

Vichy FrenchVichy regimeVichy government
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. The government fell less than a year after the outbreak of World War II, when German forces occupied much of France, and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France (La France libre) and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France (L'État français).
On 10 July, the Third Republic was effectively dissolved as Pétain was granted full powers by the National Assembly.

History of France

French historyFranceFrench
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La III e République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy, then briefly as a Second Republic, and then as a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.

Paris Commune

CommuneCommune of ParisParis Commune of 1871
Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace (keeping the Territoire de Belfort) and Lorraine (the northeastern part, i.e. present-day department of Moselle), social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune.
The Franco-Prussian War had led to the capture of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the collapse of the Second French Empire, and the beginning of the Third Republic.

Adolphe Thiers

ThiersLouis Adolphe ThiersLouis-Adolphe Thiers
Calls for the re-establishment of the monarchy dominated the tenures of the first two presidents, Adolphe Thiers and Patrice de MacMahon, but growing support for the republican form of government among the French populace and a series of republican presidents in the 1880s gradually quashed prospects of a monarchical restoration.
He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic.

Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of France
The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870.
The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris and Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.

German military administration in occupied France during World War II

occupied FranceGerman occupation of FranceGerman occupation
The government fell less than a year after the outbreak of World War II, when German forces occupied much of France, and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France (La France libre) and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France (L'État français).
Replacing the French Third Republic that had dissolved during France's defeat was the "French State" (État français), with its sovereignty and authority limited to the free zone.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of Africa
The Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, and large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century.
During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873–96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall.

Free France

Free FrenchFree French ForcesFree French Army
The government fell less than a year after the outbreak of World War II, when German forces occupied much of France, and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France (La France libre) and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France (L'État français).
It ruled France until the end of the war and afterwards to 1946, when the Fourth Republic was established, thus ending the series of interim regimes that had succeeded the Third Republic after its fall in 1940.

Philippe Pétain

PétainMarshal PétainPetain
The government fell less than a year after the outbreak of World War II, when German forces occupied much of France, and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France (La France libre) and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France (L'État français).
His government voted to transform the discredited French Third Republic into the French State, an authoritarian regime that collaborated with the Axis.

Battle of Sedan

SedanBattle of Sedan (1870)surrender
After Napoleon's capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan (1 September 1870), Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870.
It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government.

French Madagascar

MadagascarFrench colonizationColony of Madagascar and Dependencies
The Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, and large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century.
Malagasy veterans of military service in France during World War I bolstered the embryonic nationalist movement.

Democratic Republican Alliance

Democratic AllianceAlliance démocratiqueAD
The early years of the 20th century were dominated by the Democratic Republican Alliance, which was originally conceived as a centre-left political alliance, but over time became the main centre-right party.
However, after World War I and the parliamentary disappearance of monarchists and Bonapartists it quickly became the main centre-right party of the Third Republic.

Government of National Defense

Government of National Defence1870–1871after 1870
After Napoleon's capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan (1 September 1870), Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870.
The Government of National Defense (Gouvernement de la Défense nationale) was the first government of the Third Republic of France from 4 September 1870 to 13 February 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War.

1871 French legislative election

18711871 (Feb)1871 legislative elections
The French legislative election of 1871, held in the aftermath of the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, resulted in a monarchist majority in the French National Assembly that was favourable to making a peace agreement with Prussia.
Legislative elections were held in France on 8 February 1871 to elect the first legislature of the French Third Republic, the unicameral National Assembly.

Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)

Treaty of Frankfurtceded to Germany1871
The new government negotiated a peace settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire: the Treaty of Frankfurt signed on 10 May 1871.

16 May 1877 crisis

Seize MaiMay 16, 1877 crisisconstitutional crisis of May 1877
President de MacMahon responded in May 1877, attempting to quell the Republicans' rising popularity and limit their political influence through a series of actions which would become known in France as le seize Mai.
The 16 May 1877 crisis (Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic concerning the distribution of power between the President and the legislature.

Jules Simon

On 16 May 1877, de MacMahon forced the resignation of Moderate Republican prime minister Jules Simon and appointed the Orléanist Albert de Broglie to the office.
Jules François Simon (31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic.

Georges Ernest Boulanger

General BoulangerGeorges BoulangerBoulangist
In 1889, the Republic was rocked by a sudden political crisis precipitated by General Georges Boulanger.
An enormously popular public figure during the Third Republic, he won a series of elections and was feared to be powerful enough to establish himself as dictator at the zenith of his popularity in January 1889.

Panama scandals

Panama scandalPanama Affaircollapse of the French Panama Canal operation
The Panama scandals of 1892 involved the enormous cost of a failed attempt to build the Panama Canal.
The Panama scandals (also known as the Panama Canal Scandal or Panama Affair) was a corruption affair that broke out in the French Third Republic in 1892, linked to a French company's failed building attempt at constructing a Panama Canal.

Laïcité

Laicismlaicistlaic
The Jules Ferry laws that made public education free, mandatory, and secular (laїque), were voted in 1881 and 1882, one of the first signs of the expanding civic powers of the Republic.
Laïcité is a concept rooted in the French Revolution, as it started to develop since the French Third Republic, after the Republicans gained control of the state.

French Crown Jewels

crown jewels of FranceRoyal crown of FranceFrench regalia
To discourage French monarchism as a serious political force, the French Crown Jewels were broken up and sold in 1885.
The set was finally broken up, with most of it sold off in 1885 by the Third French Republic.