French and Indian War

The war theater
Belligerents during the Seven Years' War. Canadians and Europeans view the French and Indian War as a theater of the Seven Years' War, while Americans view it a separate conflict.
The coureurs des bois were French Canadian fur traders, who did business with natives throughout the Mississippi and St. Lawrence watershed.
Map of Iroquois expansion, 1711. By the mid-18th century, the Iroquois Confederacy had expanded from Upstate New York to the Ohio Country.
The Cherokee, c. 1762. The Cherokee were subject to diplomatic efforts from the British and French in order to gain their support or neutrality in the event of a conflict.
Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor of New France sent an expedition in 1749 into the Ohio Country in an attempt to assert French sovereignty.
Map of European colonies in North America, c. 1750. Disputes over territorial claims persisted after the end of King George's War in 1748.
Fort Le Boeuf in 1754. In the spring of 1753, the French began to build a series of forts in the Ohio Country.
In 1754, George Washington, of the Virginia Regiment, was dispatched to warn the French to leave Virginian territory.
Washington with his war council during the Battle of Fort Necessity. After deliberations, it was decided to withdraw, and surrender the fort.
In June 1755, the British captured French naval ships sent to provide war matériel to the Acadian and Mi'kmaw militias in Nova Scotia.
British forces under fire from the French and Indian forces at Monongahela, when the Braddock expedition failed to take Fort Duquesne.
British raid on the Acadian settlement of Grimross. Efforts to undermine the French Fortress of Louisbourg resulted in the forcible removal of the Acadians.
In January 1756, John Campbell was named as the new British Commander-in-Chief, North America.
In August 1756, French soldiers and native warriors led by Louis-Joseph de Montcalm successfully attacked Fort Oswego.
Montcalm attempts to stop native warriors from attacking the British. A number of British soldiers were killed after the Siege of Fort William Henry.
British forces besieging the Fortress of Louisbourg. The French fortress fell in July 1758 after a 48-day siege.
A British expedition sent to invade Canada was repulsed by the French at the Battle of Carillon in July 1758.
After a three-month siege of Quebec City, British forces captured the city at the Plains of Abraham.
French authorities surrendering Montreal to British forces in 1760.
The resulting peace dramatically changed the political landscape of North America, with New France ceded to the British and the Spanish.
A copy of the Quebec Act passed in 1774 which addressed a number of grievances held by French Canadians and Indians, although it angered American colonists

Theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French, each side being supported by various Native American tribes.

- French and Indian War

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Edward Braddock

General Edward Braddock (note: the accuracy of this portrait has been widely challenged; no image of Braddock prior to his death has ever been or is known to exist)
19th-century engraving of General Braddock's burial near Great Meadows, Pennsylvania
The grave of General Edward Braddock
Dedication Plaque

Major-General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the Thirteen Colonies during the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), the North American front of what is known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).

Fort Duquesne

Fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.

Map indicating the locations of the two forts
French forts, 1753 and 1754
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Model of Fort Duquesne
At Point State Park in downtown Pittsburgh, bricks mark the outline of the former site of Fort Duquesne.
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Fort Duquesne was destroyed by the French, prior to British conquest during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War on the North American front.

George Washington

American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the 1st president of the United States from 1789 to 1797.

Portrait based on the unfinished Athenaeum Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1796
Ferry Farm, the residence of the Washington family on the Rappahannock River
Lieutenant Colonel Washington holds night council at Fort Necessity
Washington the Soldier: Lieutenant Colonel Washington on horseback during the Battle of the Monongahela (oil, Reǵnier, 1834)
Colonel George Washington, by Charles Willson Peale, 1772
Martha Washington based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston
General Washington, Commander of the Continental Army by Charles Willson Peale (1776)
Washington taking command of the Continental Army, just before the siege.
Battle of Long Island
Alonzo Chappel (1858)
Washington Crossing the Delaware, Emanuel Leutze (1851)
The Passage of the Delaware, by Thomas Sully, 1819 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
See map
The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776
by John Trumbull
Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge, by John Ward Dunsmore (1907)
Washington Rallying the Troops at Monmouth, Emanuel Leutze (1851–1854)
An engraving of Washington, likely made after his tenure in the army.
French King Louis XVI allied with Washington and Patriot American colonists
Siege of Yorktown, Generals Washington and Rochambeau give last orders before the attack
General George Washington Resigning His Commission, by John Trumbull, 1824
Shays' Rebellion confirmed for Washington the need to overhaul the Articles of Confederation.
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940. Washington is the presiding officer standing at right.
President George Washington, Gilbert Stuart (1795)
The President's House in Philadelphia was Washington's residence from 1790 to 1797
John Jay, negotiator of the Jay Treaty
Seneca chief Red Jacket was Washington's peace emissary with the Northwestern Confederacy.
Battle of Fallen Timbers by R. F. Zogbaum, 1896. The Ohio Country was ceded to America in its aftermath.
USS Constitution: Commissioned and named by President Washington in 1794
Washington's Farewell Address (September 19, 1796)
distillery
Washington on his Deathbed
Junius Brutus Stearns 1799
Miniature of George Washington by Robert Field (1800)
The sarcophagi of George (right) and Martha Washington at the present tomb's entrance
The Washington Family by Edward Savage (c. 1789–1796) George and Martha Washington with her grandchildren. National Art Gallery
George Washington's bookplate with the Coat of arms of the Washington family
George Washington as Master of his Lodge, 1793
Washington as Farmer at Mount Vernon
Junius Brutus Stearns, 1851
Runaway advertisement for Oney Judge, enslaved servant in Washington's presidential household
In 1794, Washington privately expressed to Tobias Lear, his secretary, that he found slavery to be repugnant.
Washington, the Constable by Gilbert Stuart (1797)
A drawing from a Japanese manuscript of Washington fighting a tiger.
Washington Monument, Washington, D.C.
nation's first postage stamps
Washington issue of 1862
Washington–Franklin issue of 1917
Washington quarter dollar
George Washington Presidential one-dollar coin
Washington on the 1928 dollar bill

Subsequently, he received his initial military training (as well as a command with the Virginia Regiment) during the French and Indian War.

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West
A portrait of Wolfe printed circa 1776
French fire ships sent downriver to block the British advance, as shown in a copy of a painting by Dominic Serres
Initial British landing, claiming the Point Levis and the unsuccessful attack on 31 August
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Anse au Foulon
Landing of the British troops on 12 September
Map of the Quebec City area showing disposition of French and British forces. The Plains of Abraham are to the left.
The British under General Wolfe climbing the heights of Quebec, 1759
First phase of the battle
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys (1869–1951)
French forces in retreat
Drawing by a soldier of Wolfe's army depicting the easy climbing of Wolfe's soldiers
General Montcalm, mortally wounded on the Plains of Abraham, is taken to Quebec. Watercolour by Louis Bombled (1862–1927)
The Death of Montcalm
Martello Tower (constructed by the British 1808–1812) in The Battlefields Park, Quebec City

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War to describe the North American theatre).

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham

British statesman of the Whig group who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century.

Pitt the Elder, after Richard Brompton
Governor Thomas "Diamond" Pitt
Lord Cobham, Pitt's commanding officer and political mentor. Pitt was part of a group of young MPs known as Cobham's Cubs.
The huge monument to William Pitt the Elder, in the Guildhall, London stands opposite an equally huge monument to his son, William Pitt the Younger in a balanced composition
George II leading his forces to victory at the Battle of Dettingen (1743). Pitt incurred his lasting displeasure by attacking British support for Hanover, which would blight their relations for twenty years.
William Pitt the Elder, by Joseph Wilton, National Portrait Gallery, London
"We must declare war on France". This curious representation of William Pitt making a speech to Parliament wants to show his absolute opposition to France on colonial problems.
Pitt's longstanding rival Henry Fox.
Pitt the Elder, by William Hoare
The Duke of Newcastle with whom Pitt formed an unlikely political partnership from 1757
James Wolfe's victory at the Battle of Quebec in 1759
New borders drawn by the Royal Proclamation of 1763
Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey established the East India Company as a military as well as a commercial power.
Lord Bute's rise to power between 1760 and 1762 dramatically influenced the emphasis of Britain's war effort. Like the new king, Bute favoured an end to British involvement on the continent.
Coat of arms of William Pitt.
Arms of William Pitt. Note that his arms form the basis for those of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh.
The Death of the Earl of Chatham in the House of Lords, 7 April 1778. Painting by John Singleton Copley, 1779–80. (In fact he died 34 days after the seizure depicted.)
William Pitt the Younger was to become Prime Minister at a young age and lead Britain for more than twenty years.

Pitt was a member of the British cabinet and its informal leader from 1756 to 1761 (with a brief interlude in 1757), during the Seven Years' War (including the French and Indian War in the American colonies).

Expulsion of the Acadians

The forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the present-day U.S. state of Maine — parts of an area historically known as Acadia, causing the deaths of thousands of people.

St. John River Campaign: "A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross" (1758)
Watercolor by Thomas Davies
British Army officer and Governor, Charles Lawrence
Deportation of the Acadians, Grand-Pré
Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot
Raid on Lunenburg (1756)
Major Jedidiah Preble
A view of Miramichi, a French settlement in the Gulf of St. Laurence, destroyed by Brigadier Murray detached by General Wolfe for that purpose, from the Bay of Gaspe, (1758)
Raid on Miramichi Bay – Burnt Church Village by Captain Hervey Smythe (1758)
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians on Georges Island (background), Bishops Landing, Halifax
A map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1755. The province of Nova Scotia had expanded to encompass all of Acadie, or present-day New Brunswick.
Mémorial des Acadiens de Nantes
Thomas Jefferys (1710–71) was a royal geographer to King George III and a London publisher of maps. He is well known for his maps of North America, produced to meet commercial demand, but also to support British territorial claims against the French. This map presents Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island in the wake of the "great upheaval".

The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian Wars (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France.

Braddock Expedition

Route of the Braddock Expedition
Map of Braddock's Military Road
French and British forts in the region. The French forts were Fort Duquesne and the forts to the north.
Braddock Road trace near Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania.
19th-century engraving of the wounding of Major-General Braddock at the Battle of the Monongahela.
Plan of the Battle at the beginning of action on July 9, 1755 (1830 engraving)
The mortally wounded Braddock retreating with his troops.

The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock's campaign or (more commonly) Braddock's Defeat, a failed British military expedition, attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (established in 1754, located in present-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755, during the French and Indian War of 1754 to 1763.

Treaty of Paris (1763)

Signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain and Prussia's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

The combatants of the Seven Years' War as shown before the outbreak of war in the mid-1750s.
"A new map of North America" – produced following the Treaty of Paris
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink and Spanish territorial gains after the consummation of the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow

The signing of the treaty formally ended conflict between France and Great Britain over control of North America (the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the United States), and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.

Acadia

Colony of New France in northeastern North America which included parts of what are now the Maritime provinces, the Gaspé Peninsula and Maine to the Kennebec River.

Acadia (1754)
The French claimed that the Kennebec River formed the border between Acadia and New England, seen here on a map of Maine
Siege of Saint John (1645) – d'Aulnay defeats La Tour in Acadia
Acadia in 1757
French map of 1720 North America. Acadie extends clearly into present-day New Brunswick.
Duc d'Anville Expedition: Action between and the Mars
Acadians at Annapolis Royal, by Samuel Scott, 1751; earliest known image of Acadians
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies in 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
This Acadian flag was established at the second Acadian Convention in 1884 at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island.
Main Acadian communities of Acadia before the deportation
Charles de Menou d'Aulnay – Civil War in Acadia
Françoise-Marie Jacquelin – Civil War in Acadia
Baron de Saint-Castin – Castine's War
Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville – Queen Anne's War
Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, last governor of Acadia 1706–1710
Sébastien Rale – Father Rale's War
Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope – Father Le Loutre's War
Jean-Louis Le Loutre – Father Le Loutre's War
Thomas Pichon
Joseph (Beausoleil) Broussard

The British took New Brunswick in Father Le Loutre's War, and they took Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean in 1758 following the French and Indian War.

Battle of the Monongahela

Washington the Soldier Lt. Col. Washington on horseback during the Battle of the Monongahela — Reǵnier 1834
Major General Edward Braddock launched a military expedition aimed at capturing the French Fort Duquesne.
British forces are attacked by Native American, French, and Canadian forces positioned along the tree line.
After three hours of intense combat, General Braddock was mortally wounded, resulting in the withdrawal of British forces.
The mortally wounded General Braddock during the retreat. The British saw significant casualties in the battle.
Braddock's Field 175th anniversary commemorative issue of 1930

The Battle of the Monongahela (also known as the Battle of Braddock's Field and the Battle of the Wilderness) took place on 9 July 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, at Braddock's Field in what is now Braddock, Pennsylvania, 10 mi east of Pittsburgh.