French campaign against Korea

French campaign against Korea (1866)French Campaign against Korea, 1866French CampaignFrench invasion1866 invasion1866 invasion of Koreaa punitive expedition against that kingdomattacksBattle of GanghwaBattle of Ganghwa (1866)
The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of seven French Catholic missionaries.wikipedia
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Paris Foreign Missions Society

M.E.P.MEPMissions étrangères de Paris
These French missionaries of the Paris Foreign Missions Society arrived in Korea in the 1840s to proselytize to a growing Korean flock.
In Korea, persecutions were used to justify the 1866 French campaign against Korea.

Gojong of Korea

GojongEmperor GojongKing Gojong
This attitude changed abruptly, however, with the enthronement of the eleven-year-old King Gojong in 1864.
During the mid-1860s, the Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French invasion and the United States expedition to Korea in 1871.

Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876

Treaty of GanghwaJapan-Korea Treaty of 1876Ganghwa Treaty
The encounter also confirmed Korea in its isolationism for another decade, until Japan forced it to open up to trade in 1876 through the Treaty of Ganghwa.
In 1866 after the execution of several of its Catholic missionaries and Korean Catholics, the French launched a punitive expedition against Korea.

Joseon

Joseon DynastyJoseon (Korea)Korea
The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of seven French Catholic missionaries. Throughout the history of the Joseon dynasty, Korea maintained a policy of strict isolationism from the outside world (with the exceptions being interaction with the Qing dynasty and occasional trading with Japan through the island of Tsushima).
During the mid-1860s the Regent was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French Campaign against Korea in 1866.

Siméon-François Berneux

Bishop Saint Siméon-François BerneuxSaint Siméon-François BerneuxSimeon Berneux
Bishop Siméon-François Berneux, appointed in 1856 as head of the infant Korean Catholic church, estimated in 1859 that the number of Korean faithful had reached nearly 17,000. As a result of the Korean dragnet, all but three of the French missionaries were captured and executed: among them included Bishop Siméon Berneux, as well as Bishop Antoine Daveluy, Father Just de Bretenières, Father Louis Beaulieu, Father Pierre-Henri Dorie, Father Pierre Aumaître, Father Martin-Luc Huin – all of whom were members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, and were canonized by Pope John Paul II on 6 May 1984.
His death provoked the French campaign against Korea the same year.

Punitive expedition

punitive campaignpunitivepunitive uprising
The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of seven French Catholic missionaries.

Ganghwa Island

GanghwadoGanghwaGanghwa-do
The encounter over Ganghwa Island lasted nearly six weeks.
The mass execution of Catholic French missionaries and Korean converts under the ministry of the Heungseon Daewongun in the mid-1860s led to a French invasion in 1866 which held the island for several weeks, although Admiral Roze was unable to sail up the shallow and uncharted Han River and fortified monasteries prevented overland incursion.

Pierre-Gustave Roze

Admiral Roze
Fortuitously in Tianjin at the time of Ridel‘s arrival was the commander of the French Far Eastern Squadron, Rear Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze.
He won most recognition during the French Campaign against Korea in 1866, an offensive involving the French Far Eastern Squadron as well as French marines that proved a failed attempt to force reparations from the Korean court for its persecution of French and native Catholics.

French frigate Guerrière (1860)

Guerrière
On 11 October, Admiral Roze left Chefoo with one frigate (Guerrière), two avisos (Kien–Chan and Déroulède), two gunboats (Le Brethon and Tardif) and two corvettes (Laplace and Primauguet), as well as almost 300 Naval Fusiliers from their post in Yokohama, Japan.
She is known as the flagship of Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze during the French campaign against Korea in 1866.

Marie-Nicolas-Antoine Daveluy

Antoine DaveluyBishop DaveluyAntoine-Marie-Nicolas Daveluy
As a result of the Korean dragnet, all but three of the French missionaries were captured and executed: among them included Bishop Siméon Berneux, as well as Bishop Antoine Daveluy, Father Just de Bretenières, Father Louis Beaulieu, Father Pierre-Henri Dorie, Father Pierre Aumaître, Father Martin-Luc Huin – all of whom were members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, and were canonized by Pope John Paul II on 6 May 1984.

Pierre-Henri Dorie

Henri DoriePierre Henri Dorié
As a result of the Korean dragnet, all but three of the French missionaries were captured and executed: among them included Bishop Siméon Berneux, as well as Bishop Antoine Daveluy, Father Just de Bretenières, Father Louis Beaulieu, Father Pierre-Henri Dorie, Father Pierre Aumaître, Father Martin-Luc Huin – all of whom were members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, and were canonized by Pope John Paul II on 6 May 1984.
The persecutions triggered the French Campaign against Korea in October–November 1866.

Kyujanggak

GyujanggakGyujanggak libraryKyujanggak Archives
On Ganghwa Island, the Naval Fusiliers managed to seize several fortified positions, as well as booty such as flags, cannons, 8,000 muskets, 23 boxes of silver ingots, a few boxes of gold, and various lacquer works, jades, and manuscripts and paintings that comprised the royal library (Oikyujanggak) on the island.
In 1866, during the French campaign against Korea, the troops attacked Ganghwa-do Island and seized a vast amount of silverware, royal artifacts, and 297 volumes of royal Uigwe from the Outer Kyujanggak library and burned down the building.

French gunboat Le Brethon (1864)

Le Brethon
On 11 October, Admiral Roze left Chefoo with one frigate (Guerrière), two avisos (Kien–Chan and Déroulède), two gunboats (Le Brethon and Tardif) and two corvettes (Laplace and Primauguet), as well as almost 300 Naval Fusiliers from their post in Yokohama, Japan.
She served in the Far East, notably during the French campaign against Korea of 1866.

Uigwe

Jinchan Uigweuiqwe
The books seized by the French at Ganghwa, some 297 volumes of Uigwe, royal court protocols of Korea's last ruling monarchy, the Joseon dynasty, dating from between the 14th and 19th centuries, went on to become the core of the Korea collection in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
In 1866, after the execution of a number of French Catholic missionaries in Korea, a French expeditionary force came from China to seek explanations, resulting in the French campaign against Korea.

French aviso Kien Chan (1860)

Kien ChanKien–Chan
On 11 October, Admiral Roze left Chefoo with one frigate (Guerrière), two avisos (Kien–Chan and Déroulède), two gunboats (Le Brethon and Tardif) and two corvettes (Laplace and Primauguet), as well as almost 300 Naval Fusiliers from their post in Yokohama, Japan.
In 1866, captained by Trève, Kien Chan took part in the French campaign against Korea.

General Sherman incident

General Sherman'' incidentGeneral ShermanSS ''General Sherman
In the course of these events, in August 1866, a U.S. ship General Sherman foundered on the coast of Korea.
Father Ridel, a French priest who later that year guided the French invasion party into Korea, told the westerners in China that the regent Daewongun had sent orders that General Sherman must leave immediately or all aboard would be killed.

Ganghwa Island incident

Battle of Ganghwa (1875)confrontationsdiplomatic incident
In 1866, the island was briefly occupied during the French expedition against Korea, and in 1871 the site of an American expedition.

National Museum of Korea

Celadon Openwork Incense BurnerKoreaKoreanisches Nationalmuseum
The collection is now being stored in the National Museum of Korea.
Two hundred and ninety-seven volumes of the Protocols that were looted in 1866 during the French campaign against Korea were kept at the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

United States expedition to Korea

Korean ExpeditionShinmiyangyoexpedition to Korea
An intervention happened in 1871, with the United States Korean expedition.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of seven French Catholic missionaries.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
The encounter also confirmed Korea in its isolationism for another decade, until Japan forced it to open up to trade in 1876 through the Treaty of Ganghwa. Throughout the history of the Joseon dynasty, Korea maintained a policy of strict isolationism from the outside world (with the exceptions being interaction with the Qing dynasty and occasional trading with Japan through the island of Tsushima).

Isolationism

isolationistisolationisolationists
Throughout the history of the Joseon dynasty, Korea maintained a policy of strict isolationism from the outside world (with the exceptions being interaction with the Qing dynasty and occasional trading with Japan through the island of Tsushima).

Tsushima-Fuchū Domain

Tsushima DomainTsushimaTsushima han
Throughout the history of the Joseon dynasty, Korea maintained a policy of strict isolationism from the outside world (with the exceptions being interaction with the Qing dynasty and occasional trading with Japan through the island of Tsushima).

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
Through Korean envoy missions to the Qing court in the 18th century, foreign ideas, including Christianity, began to enter Korea and by the late 18th century Korea had its first native Christians.