French people

Map of Gaul before complete Roman conquest (circa 58 BCE) and its five main regions : Celtica, Belgica, Cisalpina, Narbonensis and Aquitania.
Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"
Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom has two French mottos: Dieu et mon droit and Honi soit qui mal y pense.
French people in Paris, August 1944
Alfred-Amédée Dodds, a mixed-race French general and colonial administrator born in Senegal
Acadians celebrating the Tintamarre and National Acadian Day in Caraquet, New Brunswick.
Building of the École française d'Extrême-Orient in Pondicherry
French people born in New Caledonia

For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France

- French people

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French Americans

Map of New France about 1750 in North America
The Marquis de Lafayette, known as “The Hero of the Two Worlds” for his accomplishments in the service of the United States in the American War of Independence.
The Statue of Liberty is a gift from the French people in memory of the American Declaration of Independence.
Distribution of Franco Americans according to the 2000 census
Creole girls, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, 1935
St. Philip Street at Royal Street, French Quarter, New Orleans

French Americans or Franco-Americans (Franco-Américains), are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French-Canadian heritage, ethnicity and/or ancestral ties.

French Canadians

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins
Habitants by Cornelius Krieghoff (1852)
Languages in Quebec
Université de Saint-Boniface in Manitoba
Major ethnicities in Canada
Distribution of French Americans in the United States
Distribution of the proportion of French Canadian across Canada.
Distribution of French in the United States
The fleur-de-lis, symbol of French Canada
Quebec stop sign

French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century; Canadiens français, ; feminine form: Canadiennes françaises, ) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Culture of France

The culture of France has been shaped by geography, by historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.

Rococo architecture
Impressionism, Impression, Sunrise, by Claude Monet
Gothic art
Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the kings of France were crowned until 1825.
The Grande Mosquée in Paris.
The National and University Library on the campus of the University of Strasbourg.
A sweet crêpe. Crêpes are originally from Brittany.
A nouvelle cuisine presentation
French pâtisserie play a role in traditional part in French culture
French wines are a traditional part of French cuisine.

The evolution of the French state and culture, from the Renaissance up to this day, has however promoted a centralization of politics, media and cultural production in and around Paris (and, to a lesser extent, around the other major urban centers), and the industrialization of the country in the 20th century has led to a massive move of French people from the countryside to urban areas.

French nationality law

Historically based on the principles of jus soli and jus sanguinis, according to Ernest Renan's definition, in opposition to the German definition of nationality, jus sanguinis (Latin for "right of blood"), formalised by Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

Visa requirements for French citizens
Visa requirements for French citizens

For that reason, French identity must not necessarily be associated with the "ethnic French people" but can be associated with either a nationality and citizenship, or a culture and language-based group.

Swiss people

For a specific analysis of the population of Switzerland, see Demographics of Switzerland

Map of the Swiss Diaspora in the world
Man and woman of Entlebuch (Gabriel Lory, early 19th century)
Farmers of Champery, Valais (1904 photograph)
Landsgemeinde by Wilhelm Balmer and Albert Welti (1907–1914); an idealized National Romantic depiction of Swiss population and society.
Official photo of the Federal Council (2008), idealized depiction of multi-ethnic Swiss society.
Citizens of Lucerne meeting Unterwalden troops (Lucerne Chronicle 1515)
Patrician dress of Zürich (early 18th century)
People wearing Zürich folk costume in a rowing boat on Lake Zürich (Joseph Reinhart 1802)
Bernese folk costumes (1810)
Folk costume of Zug, Solothurn and Appenzell (1820s)
1814 Landsgemeinde in Trogen, Appenzell (Johann Jakob Mock, c. 1820)
Der Schulspaziergang ("School Promenade", Albert Anker 1872), representing Pestalozzi's liberal approach to education<ref>Swiss Review, Secretariat for the Swiss Abroad (2010), p. 13.</ref>
Fribourg farmers in the tavern (François Louis Jaques 1923)
Women in folk costume (1939)
Alphorn players in a folklore festival in Lucerne (2008)

The French-speaking Swiss (Romands), traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects (as well as the Franc-Comtois dialect of the Oïl languages in parts of Jura), today largely assimilated to the standard French language (Swiss French), amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and Burgundians (the historical Upper Burgundy). Romands are considered a distinct Romance people. They are closely related to the French populations of Franche-Comté and Rhône-Alpes. They are referred to as Welsche (singular Welsche f./Welscher m.) in Swiss German. French speakers (including French immigrants) accounted for 23% of population as of 2015.


Huguenot cross
The Huguenot cross
Persecution of the Waldensians in the massacre of Mérindol in 1545
Huguenots massacring Catholics in the Michelade in Nîmes
Millais' painting, A Huguenot on St. Bartholomew's Day
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants (1572). It was the climax of the French Wars of Religion, which were brought to an end by the Edict of Nantes (1598). In 1620, persecution was renewed and continued until the French Revolution in 1789.
Henry IV, as Hercules vanquishing the Lernaean Hydra (i.e., the Catholic League), by Toussaint Dubreuil, circa 1600
Expulsion from La Rochelle of 300 Protestant families in November 1661
The death of Jean Calas, who was broken on the wheel at Toulouse, 9 March 1762
The Huguenot Monument of Franschhoek in Western Cape province, South Africa
Etching of Fort Caroline
Walloon Monument in Battery Park, Manhattan, New York City
Jean Hasbrouck House (1721) on Huguenot Street in New Paltz, New York
French Huguenot Church in Charleston, South Carolina
Huguenot weavers' houses at Canterbury
Entrance to Huguenot Cemetery, Cork in Cork, Munster
Obelisk commemorating the Huguenots in Fredericia, Denmark
Relief by Johannes Boese, 1885: The Great Prince-elector of Brandenburg-Prussia welcomes arriving Huguenots
François Mitterrand issued a formal apology to the Huguenots and their descendants on behalf of the French state in 1985

The Huguenots (, also , ) were a religious group of French Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

Crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.

The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states in the context of the Near East in 1135.
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states in the context of the Near East in 1135.
The funeral of Baldwin I from the book Les Passages d'outremer faits par les Français contre les Turcs depuis Charlemagne jusqu'en 1462.
Depiction of Crusaders from a 1922 edition of Petit Larousse
The Tower of David in Jerusalem as it appears today
Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who became a close ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
An idealized twelfth-century map of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The tomb of Baldwin V on an 18th-century drawing by Elzear Horn
17th-century interpretation of Guy of Lusignan (right) being held captive by Saladin (left), clad in a traditional (Islamic) royal garment, painted by Jan Lievens.
The Near East, c. 1190, at the outset of the Third Crusade.
Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani (14th century).
Coronation of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople
Krak des Chevaliers, Syria. UNESCO World Heritage Site
Crusaders coin, Acre, 1230.
Crusaders coin, Acre, circa 1230.
Crusader coins of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Left: Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre (1162–75). Center: Kufic gold bezant (1140–80). Right: gold bezant with Christian symbol (1250s). Gold coins were first copied dinars and bore Kufic script, but after 1250 Christian symbols were added following Papal complaints (British Museum).
Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Melisende Psalter Folio 9v - The Harrowing of Hell

Its rulers and elite were therefore of French origin.


Colony of New France in northeastern North America which included parts of what are now the Maritime provinces, the Gaspé Peninsula and Maine to the Kennebec River.

Acadia (1754)
The French claimed that the Kennebec River formed the border between Acadia and New England, seen here on a map of Maine
Siege of Saint John (1645) – d'Aulnay defeats La Tour in Acadia
Acadia in 1757
French map of 1720 North America. Acadie extends clearly into present-day New Brunswick.
Duc d'Anville Expedition: Action between and the Mars
Acadians at Annapolis Royal, by Samuel Scott, 1751; earliest known image of Acadians
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies in 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
This Acadian flag was established at the second Acadian Convention in 1884 at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island.
Main Acadian communities of Acadia before the deportation
Charles de Menou d'Aulnay – Civil War in Acadia
Françoise-Marie Jacquelin – Civil War in Acadia
Baron de Saint-Castin – Castine's War
Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville – Queen Anne's War
Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, last governor of Acadia 1706–1710
Sébastien Rale – Father Rale's War
Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope – Father Le Loutre's War
Jean-Louis Le Loutre – Father Le Loutre's War
Thomas Pichon
Joseph (Beausoleil) Broussard

The population of Acadia included the various indigenous First Nations that comprised the Wabanaki Confederacy, the Acadian people and other French settlers.

Portuguese people

For a specific analysis of the population of Portugal, see Demographics of Portugal

Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red). See also [[:File:R1b.jpg|this map]] for distribution in Europe.
Indo-European migrations
A simplified map of archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. 1200 BC):
Ethnographic and Linguistic Map of the Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC.
Map showing the main pre-Roman tribes in Portugal and their main migrations. Turduli movement in red, Celtici in brown and Lusitanian in a blue colour. Most tribes neighbouring the Lusitanians were dependent on them. Names are in Latin.
Portuguese Social Club on the 2021 Bristol Fourth of July Parade Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Cape Verdian President Jorge Carlos Fonseca
Passport of an immigrant from the Braga District to Brazil

The latter is also common in Irish, southern English, and western French populations.

Ethnic group

Ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups.

A group of ethnic Bengalis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bengalis form the third-largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese and Arabs.
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
The racial diversity of Asia's ethnic groups, Nordisk familjebok (1904)
Assyrians are the indigenous peoples of Northern Iraq.
The Basque people constitute an indigenous ethnic minority in both France and Spain.
Sámi family in Lapland of Finland, 1936
The Irish are an ethnic group indigenous to Ireland of which 70–80 million people worldwide claim ancestry.

The largest ethnic groups in the United States are Germans, African Americans, Mexicans, Irish, English, Italians, Poles, French, Scottish, Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Norwegians, Dutch people, Swedish people, Chinese people, West Indians, Russians and Filipinos.