A report on Fresh water

Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.
A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. Only 3% of the Earth's water is fresh water. Most of it is in icecaps and glaciers (69%) and groundwater (30%), while all lakes, rivers and swamps combined only account for a small fraction (0.3%) of the Earth's total freshwater reserves.

Any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.

- Fresh water
Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.

33 related topics with Alpha

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Lake Toba in North Sumatra, Indonesia is the largest volcanic lake in the world

Lake

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Area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, and distinct from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

Area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, and distinct from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

Lake Toba in North Sumatra, Indonesia is the largest volcanic lake in the world
Lake Sevan is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude (alpine) lakes in Eurasia.
Peyto Lake in Alberta, Western Canada
Oeschinen Lake in the Swiss Alps
Lake Tahoe on the border of California and Nevada
Atro/Attar Lake and pass, Ishkoman Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres. Isojärvi is Finland's 97th-largest lake.
The shores of Lake Peipus, the fifth-largest lake in Europe, near the town of Kallaste in Estonia
The Seven Rila Lakes are a group of glacial lakes in the Bulgarian Rila mountains.
The crater lake of Mount Rinjani, Indonesia
Lake Kaniere is a glacial lake in the West Coast region of New Zealand.
The Nowitna River in Alaska. Two oxbow lakes – a short one at the bottom of the picture and a longer, more curved one at the middle-right.
These kettle lakes in Alaska were formed by a retreating glacier.
Ice melting on Lake Balaton in Hungary
Lakes can have significant cultural importance. The West Lake of Hangzhou has inspired romantic poets throughout the ages, and has been an important influence on garden designs in China, Japan and Korea.
Lake Mapourika, New Zealand
Five Flower Lake in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan
Lake Teletskoye, Siberia
Lake of Flowers (Liqeni i Lulëve), one of the Lurë Mountains glacial lakes, Albania
Cross sectional diagram of limnological lake zones (left) and algal community types (right)
Ephemeral 'Lake Badwater', a lake only noted after heavy winter and spring rainfall, Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park, 9 February 2005. Landsat 5 satellite photo
Badwater Basin dry lake, 15 February 2007. Landsat 5 satellite photo
Titan's north polar hydrocarbon seas and lakes, as seen in a false-color Cassini synthetic aperture radar mosaic
The Caspian Sea is either the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea
Round Tangle Lake, one of the Tangle Lakes, 2,864 feet (873 m) above sea level in interior Alaska

The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes.

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Water

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Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
The three common states of matter
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Water cycle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

The physical properties of seawater differ from fresh water in some important respects.

An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.

Groundwater

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Water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

Water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.
Dzherelo, a common source of drinking water in a Ukrainian village
The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida, going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater
Groundwater may be extracted through a water well
Diagram of a water balance of the aquifer
Iron (III) oxide staining (after water capillary rise in a wall) caused by oxidation of dissolved iron (II) and its subsequent precipitation, from an unconfined aquifer in karst topography. Perth, Western Australia.
Groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Central United States
Center-pivot irrigated fields in Kansas covering hundreds of square miles watered by the Ogallala Aquifer

Groundwater makes up about thirty percent of the world's fresh water supply, which is about 0.76% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice.

Water cycle

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Biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Time-mean precipitation and evaporation as a function of latitude as simulated by an aqua-planet version of an atmospheric GCM (GFDL's AM2.1) with a homogeneous “slab-ocean” lower boundary (saturated surface with small heat capacity), forced by annual mean insolation.
Global map of annual mean evaporation minus precipitation by latitude-longitude
Relationship between impervious surfaces and surface runoff
Diagram of the water cycle
Natural water cycle

The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water (salt water) and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables.

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.

Wetland

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Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.
Sunrise at Viru Bog, Estonia
Wetlands contrast the hot, arid landscape around Middle Spring, Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah
Bud of Nelumbo nucifera, an aquatic plant.
Many species of frogs live in wetlands, while others visit them each year to lay eggs.
Snapping turtles are one of the many kinds of turtles found in wetlands.
Wetland at the Broadmoor Wildlife Sanctuary in Massachuesetts, United States, in February
Fog rising over the Mukri bog near Mukri, Estonia. The bog has an area of 2147 ha and has been protected since 1992.
Humid wetlands in Pennsylvania before a rain.

The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish or saltwater.

Global values of water resources and human water use (excluding Antarctica). Water resources 1961-90, water use around 2000. Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.

Water resources

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Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful for humans, for example as a source of drinking water supply or irrigation water.

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful for humans, for example as a source of drinking water supply or irrigation water.

Global values of water resources and human water use (excluding Antarctica). Water resources 1961-90, water use around 2000. Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.
Lake Chungará and Parinacota volcano in northern Chile
Relative groundwater travel times in the subsurface
Total renewable freshwater resources of the world, in mm/yr ( 1 mm is equivalent to 1 l of water per m²) (long-term average for the years 1961-1990). Resolution is 0.5° longitude x 0.5° latitude (equivalent to 55 km x 55 km at the equator). Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.
A power plant in Poland
Drinking water
Polluted water
Typical urban water cycle depicting drinking water purification and municipal sewage treatment systems. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems." EPA 832-R-04-001. p. 7.
Panorama of a natural wetland (Sinclair Wetlands, New Zealand)

97% of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.

Seawater off San Andrés

Seawater

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Water from a sea or ocean.

Water from a sea or ocean.

Seawater off San Andrés
Temperature-salinity diagram of changes in density of water
Ocean salinity at different latitudes in the Atlantic and Pacific
Annual mean sea surface salinity expressed in the Practical Salinity Scale for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas
Diagram showing concentrations of various salt ions in seawater. The composition of the total salt component is: 55%, 30.6%,  7.7%,  3.7%,  1.2%,  1.1%,
Other 0.7%. Note that the diagram is only correct when in units of wt/wt, not wt/vol or vol/vol.

Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/l at 4 C) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume.

The Amazon River (dark blue) and the rivers which flow into it (medium blue).

River

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The Amazon River (dark blue) and the rivers which flow into it (medium blue).
The start of a mountain stream.
Melting toe of Athabasca Glacier, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada
The Colorado River at Horseshoe Bend, Arizona
The Porvoo River (Porvoonjoki) in the medieval town of Porvoo, Finland
Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. The Nile is an example of a wave-dominated delta that has the classic Greek letter delta (Δ) shape after which river deltas were named.
A radar image of a 400 km river of methane and ethane near the north pole of Saturn's moon Titan
River meandering course
Flash flooding caused by a large amount of rain falling in a short amount of time
The mouth of the River Seaton in Cornwall after heavy rain caused flooding and significant erosion of the beach.
Frozen river in Alaska
Leisure activities on the River Avon at Avon Valley Country Park, Keynsham, United Kingdom. A boat giving trips to the public passes a moored private boat.
Watermill in Belgium.
River bank repair

A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

An iceberg in the Arctic Ocean

Iceberg

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An iceberg in the Arctic Ocean
Northern edge of Iceberg B-15A in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 29 January 2001
Grotto in an iceberg, photographed during the British Antarctic Expedition of 1911–1913, 5 Jan 1911
Different shapes of icebergs
Tabular iceberg, near Brown Bluff in the Antarctic Sound off Tabarin Peninsula
Non-tabular iceberg off Elephant Island in the Southern Ocean
One of the icebergs suspected of sinking the RMS Titanic; a smudge of red paint much like the Titanic red hull stripe was seen near its base at the waterline.
An iceberg being pushed by three U.S. Navy ships in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Iceberg A22A in the South Atlantic Ocean
Icebergs in Disko Bay
The calving of Iceberg A-38 off Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf
Iceberg pictured in the coat of arms of Ilulissat

An iceberg is a piece of freshwater ice more than 15 m long that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open (salt) water.

Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali (Mexico) to Calexico, California

Water pollution

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Contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, so that it negatively affects its uses.

Contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, so that it negatively affects its uses.

Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali (Mexico) to Calexico, California
Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities leading to the pollution of water sources
Bauxite residue is an industrial waste that is dangerously alkaline and can lead to water pollution if not managed appropriately (photo from Stade, Germany).
Muddy river polluted by sediment.
Solid waste and plastics in the Lachine Canal, Canada.
The Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay.
A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a global pollutant that has been found in drinking water. It appears not to biodegrade.
Environmental scientists preparing water autosamplers.
Oxygen depletion, resulting from nitrogen pollution and eutrophication is a common cause of fish kills.
Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya.
View of secondary treatment reactors (activated sludge process) at the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, Washington, D.C., United States. Seen in the distance are the sludge digester building and thermal hydrolysis reactors.
Silt fence installed on a construction site.
Share of water bodies with good water quality in 2020 (a water body is classified as "good" quality if at least 80% of monitoring values meet target quality levels, see also SDG 6, Indicator 6.3.2)
Plastic waste on the big drainage, and air pollution in the far end of the drainage in Ghana

It can be grouped into surface water pollution (either fresh water pollution or marine pollution) or groundwater pollution.