A report on GroundwaterWater and Fresh water

An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.
Dzherelo, a common source of drinking water in a Ukrainian village
The three common states of matter
A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. Only 3% of the Earth's water is fresh water. Most of it is in icecaps and glaciers (69%) and groundwater (30%), while all lakes, rivers and swamps combined only account for a small fraction (0.3%) of the Earth's total freshwater reserves.
The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida, going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Groundwater may be extracted through a water well
Tetrahedral structure of water
Diagram of a water balance of the aquifer
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Iron (III) oxide staining (after water capillary rise in a wall) caused by oxidation of dissolved iron (II) and its subsequent precipitation, from an unconfined aquifer in karst topography. Perth, Western Australia.
Water cycle
Groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Central United States
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Center-pivot irrigated fields in Kansas covering hundreds of square miles watered by the Ogallala Aquifer
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

- Groundwater

Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.

- Fresh water

Fresh water may encompass frozen and meltwater in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, snowfields and icebergs, natural precipitations such as rainfall, snowfall, hail/sleet and graupel, and surface runoffs that form inland bodies of water such as wetlands, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, as well as groundwater contained in aquifers, subterranean rivers and lakes.

- Fresh water

Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (consisting of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).

- Water

Groundwater makes up about thirty percent of the world's fresh water supply, which is about 0.76% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice.

- Groundwater

The physical properties of seawater differ from fresh water in some important respects.

- Water
An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Schematic of an aquifer showing confined zones, groundwater travel times, a spring and a well

Aquifer

0 links

Schematic of an aquifer showing confined zones, groundwater travel times, a spring and a well
An aquifer cross-section. This diagram shows two aquifers with one aquitard (a confining or impermeable layer) between them, surrounded by the bedrock aquiclude, which is in contact with a gaining stream (typical in humid regions). The water table and unsaturated zone are also illustrated.
Water in porous aquifers slowly seeps through pore spaces between sand grains
Water in karst aquifers flows through open conduits where water flows as underground streams
Map of major US aquifers by rock type
Texas blind salamander found in Edwards Aquifer

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).

Groundwater from aquifers can be extracted using a water well.

Groundwater can be found at nearly every point in the Earth's shallow subsurface to some degree, although aquifers do not necessarily contain fresh water.

Water cycle

0 links

Time-mean precipitation and evaporation as a function of latitude as simulated by an aqua-planet version of an atmospheric GCM (GFDL's AM2.1) with a homogeneous “slab-ocean” lower boundary (saturated surface with small heat capacity), forced by annual mean insolation.
Global map of annual mean evaporation minus precipitation by latitude-longitude
Relationship between impervious surfaces and surface runoff
Diagram of the water cycle
Natural water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the hydrological cycle, is a biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water (salt water) and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables.

Runoff and water emerging from the ground (groundwater) may be stored as freshwater in lakes.

An inland lake, an example of surface water

Surface water

0 links

An inland lake, an example of surface water
The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater.
A stream gauge used to measure surface water.

Surface water is water located on top of the Earth's surface, and may also be referred to as blue water.

Levels of surface water lessen as a result of evaporation as well as water moving into the ground becoming ground-water.

For USGS water-use reports, surface water is considered freshwater when it contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids.

Global values of water resources and human water use (excluding Antarctica). Water resources 1961-90, water use around 2000. Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.

Water resources

0 links

Global values of water resources and human water use (excluding Antarctica). Water resources 1961-90, water use around 2000. Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.
Lake Chungará and Parinacota volcano in northern Chile
Relative groundwater travel times in the subsurface
Total renewable freshwater resources of the world, in mm/yr ( 1 mm is equivalent to 1 l of water per m²) (long-term average for the years 1961-1990). Resolution is 0.5° longitude x 0.5° latitude (equivalent to 55 km x 55 km at the equator). Computed by the global freshwater model WaterGAP.
A power plant in Poland
Drinking water
Polluted water
Typical urban water cycle depicting drinking water purification and municipal sewage treatment systems. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems." EPA 832-R-04-001. p. 7.
Panorama of a natural wetland (Sinclair Wetlands, New Zealand)

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful for humans, for example as a source of drinking water supply or irrigation water.

97% of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.

Natural sources of fresh water include surface water, under river flow, groundwater and frozen water.