Fricative consonant

Fricativefricativesspirantvoiceless fricativefricationvoiced fricativeUnvoiced FricativeFricatedfricative soundsvoiced
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.wikipedia
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Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Examples are, pronounced with the lips;, pronounced with the front of the tongue;, pronounced with the back of the tongue;, pronounced in the throat; and, pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and and, which have air flowing through the nose (nasals).

Manner of articulation

articulationmanners of articulationspeech
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Others include those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills), and the sibilancy of fricatives.

Sibilant

sibilantssibilancesibilant consonant
A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants.
In phonetics, sibilants are fricative consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the teeth.

Uvular consonant

Uvularuvular consonantsuvulars
"Strident" could mean just "sibilant", but some authors include also labiodental and uvular fricatives in the class.
Uvulars may be stops, fricatives, nasals, trills, or approximants, though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh (appearing twice in the name Llanelli).

Voiceless alveolar fricative

svoiceless alveolar sibilant s ''' [s
The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant (commonly termed the voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant) is a fricative that is articulated with the tongue in a hollow shape, usually with the tip of the tongue (apex) against the alveolar ridge.

Voiceless postalveolar fricative

ʃvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantvoiceless palato-alveolar fricative
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.

Apical consonant

Apicalapico-alveolarapicoalveolar
However, at the postalveolar place of articulation, the tongue may take several shapes: domed, laminal, or apical, and each of these is given a separate symbol and a separate name.
It is not a very common distinction and is typically applied only to fricatives and affricates.

Voiced postalveolar fricative

ʒvoiced palato-alveolar sibilant/ʒ/
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.

Laminal consonant

laminallamino-alveolarlaminodental
However, at the postalveolar place of articulation, the tongue may take several shapes: domed, laminal, or apical, and each of these is given a separate symbol and a separate name.

Sj-sound

voiceless palatal-velar fricativeɧSj''-sound
True doubly articulated fricatives may not occur in any language; but see voiceless palatal-velar fricative for a putative (and rather controversial) example.
The sj-sound (sj-ljudet ) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects of the sound system of Swedish.

Place of articulation

places of articulationarticulatedplace
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Some Indigenous Australian languages contrast dental, alveolar, retroflex, and palatal laterals, and many Native American languages have lateral fricatives and affricates as well.

Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

voiceless alveolar lateral fricativevoiceless lateral fricativeɬ
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

Voiceless glottal fricative

hglottal fricativevoiceless glottal transition
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

Voiced glottal fricative

glottal fricativeɦvoiced
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

Zulu language

ZuluisiZululanguage
The lateral fricative occurs as the ll of Welsh, as in Lloyd, Llewelyn, and Machynlleth (, a town), as the unvoiced 'hl' and voiced 'dl' or 'dhl' in the several languages of Southern Africa (such as Xhosa and Zulu), and in Mongolian.

Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

voiced alveolar lateral fricativeɮVoiced dental lateral fricative
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is (sometimes referred to as lezh), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is.

Voiced pharyngeal fricative

ʕpharyngeal approximantepiglottal approximant
The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation.

Voiced velar lateral fricative

voiced lateral fricativevoiced fricative
The voiced velar lateral fricative is a very rare speech sound that can be found in Archi, a Northeast Caucasian language of Dagestan, in which it is clearly a fricative, although further forward than velars in most languages, and might better be called prevelar.

Mehri language

MehriMahri languagegdq
Emphatic (but not voiced) fricatives have a similar pattern, and in non-pre-pausal position they are partially voiced.

Xhosa language

XhosaisiXhosaIsiXhosa language
The lateral fricative occurs as the ll of Welsh, as in Lloyd, Llewelyn, and Machynlleth (, a town), as the unvoiced 'hl' and voiced 'dl' or 'dhl' in the several languages of Southern Africa (such as Xhosa and Zulu), and in Mongolian.

Lateral consonant

LateralLateral approximantLaterals
The most common laterals are approximants and belong to the class of liquids, but lateral fricatives and affricates are also common in some parts of the world.

Voiceless velar lateral fricative

voiceless lateral fricative*lateral
Although clearly fricatives, these are further forward than velars in most languages, and might better be called prevelar.

Welsh phonology

Welshphonology
The lateral fricative occurs as the ll of Welsh, as in Lloyd, Llewelyn, and Machynlleth (, a town), as the unvoiced 'hl' and voiced 'dl' or 'dhl' in the several languages of Southern Africa (such as Xhosa and Zulu), and in Mongolian.

Approximant consonant

ApproximantApproximantsGlide
No language distinguishes voiced fricatives from approximants at these places, so the same symbol is used for both.
Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives, which do produce a turbulent airstream, and vowels, which produce no turbulence.