# Friedman test

**Friedman two-way analysis of varianceFriedman two-way analysis of variance by ranksFriedman's analysis of variance by ranks**

The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test developed by Milton Friedman.wikipedia

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### Durbin test

Applicable to complete block designs, it is thus a special case of the Durbin test.

In the analysis of designed experiments, the Friedman test is the most common non-parametric test for complete block designs.

### Ranking

**rankrankedrankings**

The procedure involves ranking each row (or block) together, then considering the values of ranks by columns.

### Chi-squared distribution

**chi-squaredchi-square distributionchi square distribution**

Many other statistical tests also use this distribution, such as Friedman's analysis of variance by ranks.

### Analysis of variance

**ANOVAanalysis of variance (ANOVA)corrected the means**

Similar to the parametric repeated measures ANOVA, it is used to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts.

The Kruskal–Wallis test and the Friedman test are nonparametric tests, which do not rely on an assumption of normality.

### Milton Friedman

**FriedmanFriedman, MiltonMilton**

The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test developed by Milton Friedman.

### Kendall's W

**coefficients of concordanceKendall’s coefficient of concordance**

It is a normalization of the statistic of the Friedman test, and can be used for assessing agreement among raters.

### Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance

**Kruskal–Wallis testKruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of varianceKruskal–Wallis**

In its use of ranks it is similar to the Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks.

### Cochran's Q test

**Cochran's QQ statistic**

### Nonparametric statistics

**non-parametricnon-parametric statisticsnonparametric**

The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test developed by Milton Friedman.

### Statistical hypothesis testing

**hypothesis testingstatistical teststatistical tests**

The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test developed by Milton Friedman.

### Parametric statistics

**parametricparametric testparametric inference**

Similar to the parametric repeated measures ANOVA, it is used to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts.

### Repeated measures design

**repeated measuresrepeated-measures designCarryover effect**

Similar to the parametric repeated measures ANOVA, it is used to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts.

### Blocking (statistics)

**Randomized block designblockingblocks**

Applicable to complete block designs, it is thus a special case of the Durbin test.

### Comparison of statistical packages

**Econometric softwareEconometrics softwarestatistical computer packages**

Friedman test is widely supported by many statistical software packages.

### Matrix (mathematics)

**matrixmatricesmatrix theory**

### Probability distribution

**distributioncontinuous probability distributiondiscrete probability distribution**

### Statistical significance

**statistically significantsignificantsignificance level**

### Multiple comparisons problem

**multiple comparisonsmultiple testingmultiple comparison**

### Wilcoxon signed-rank test

**Wilcoxon Signed Rank Testsigned-ranksWilcoxon**

### R (programming language)

**RR programming languageCRAN**

Eisinga, Heskes, Pelzer and Te Grotenhuis (2017) provide an exact test for pairwise comparison of Friedman rank sums, implemented in R. Not all statistical packages support Post-hoc analysis for Friedman's test, but user-contributed code exists that provides these facilities (for example in SPSS, and in R.

### Post hoc analysis

**Post-hoc analysispost-hocpost hoc**

Post-hoc tests were proposed by Schaich and Hamerle (1984) as well as Conover (1971, 1980) in order to decide which groups are significantly different from each other, based upon the mean rank differences of the groups.

### SPSS

**IBM SPSS StatisticsPredictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW)SCSS**

Not all statistical packages support Post-hoc analysis for Friedman's test, but user-contributed code exists that provides these facilities (for example in SPSS, and in R.

### Cultural consensus theory

**consensus analysis**

Although there are statistical methods to evaluate whether agreement among raters is greater than chance (Binomial test, Friedman test, or Kendall’s coefficient of concordance), these methods do not provide a best estimate of the “true” answers nor do they estimate competence of the raters.

### List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

**Nobel laureateNobel laureates in economicsEconomics**