Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm NietzscheFrederich NietzscheFriederich NietzscheNietzsche, FriedrichNietzcheNietzschianFriedrich NietzcheFriedrich Nietszche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (, or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.wikipedia
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Will to power

The Will to PowerWille zur Machtstrive for power
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
The will to power describes what Nietzsche may have believed to be the main driving force in humans.

Master–slave morality

slave moralityMaster-slave moralitymaster morality
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
Master–slave morality is a central theme of Friedrich Nietzsche's works, particularly in the first essay of his book, On the Genealogy of Morality.

God is dead

death of GodDeath of God MovementDeath of God theological movement
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
'God is Dead' (German: ; also known as The Death of God) is a widely quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

Continental philosophy

Continentalcontinental philosophercontinental philosophers
Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism, postmodernism and post-structuralism—as well as art, literature, psychology, politics and popular culture.
Continental philosophy includes German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism (and its antecedents, such as the thought of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche), hermeneutics, structuralism, post-structuralism, deconstruction, French feminism, psychoanalytic theory, and the critical theory of the Frankfurt School and related branches of Western Marxism.

Perspectivism

perspectivalperspectivalistPerspectivist
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
Leibniz integrated this view into his philosophy, but Nietzsche fully developed it.

University of Bonn

BonnBonn UniversityRheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
After graduation in September 1864, Nietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn with hope of becoming a minister.
As of August 2018, among its notable alumni, faculty and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, and Joseph Schumpeter.

Apollonian and Dionysian

DionysianApollonianDionysiac
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
Some Western philosophical and literary figures have invoked this dichotomy in critical and creative works, most notably Friedrich Nietzsche and later followers.

Untimely Meditations

The Untimely MeditationsOn the Use and Abuse of History for LifeUntimely Meditations (Nietzsche)
He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him.
Untimely Meditations (Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations and Thoughts Out Of Season, consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876.

Pforta

SchulpfortaLandesschule PfortaSchulpforte
Because his father had worked for the state (as a pastor) the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta (the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were nowhere near the top of the class).
Notable past alumni include the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and the German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.

Eternal return

eternal recurrenceDoctrine of Eternal Recurrencecircular
He also developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return.
With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity, the theory largely fell into disuse in the Western world, with the exception of 19th Century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who connected the thought to many of his other concepts, including amor fati.

Transvaluation of values

overthrow of the valuestransvaluation of all valuesnew values
In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social, cultural and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health.
The revaluation of all values or "transvaluation" is a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Leipzig University

University of LeipzigLeipzigKarl Marx University
Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865.
Famous alumni include Leibniz, Goethe, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich Nietzsche, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, Tycho Brahe, Georgius Agricola, Angela Merkel and the nine Nobel laureates associated with the university.

Basel

Basel, SwitzerlandBasleBâle
Though never submitted, it was later published as a Gratulationsschrift (congratulatory publication) at Basel.
The University of Basel, Switzerland's oldest university (founded in 1460), and the city's centuries-long commitment to humanism, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Holbein family, Friedrich Nietzsche, and in the 20th century also Hermann Hesse and Karl Jaspers.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

In 1873, Nietzsche began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks.
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche.

Paul Deussen

Deussen
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff.
Strongly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer, Deussen was a friend of Friedrich Nietzsche and Swami Vivekananda.

Ludwig Feuerbach

FeuerbachLudwig Andreas FeuerbachFeuerbachian
In addition, Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity influenced young Nietzsche with its argument that people created God, and not the other way around.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach ( 28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity that strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Polemic

polemicspolemicistpolemical
Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony.
Since then, famous polemicists have included the satirist Jonathan Swift, French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher Voltaire, Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy, the socialist philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the novelist George Orwell, the psycholinguist Noam Chomsky, the social critic Christopher Hitchens, the existential philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche, author of On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic.

Human, All Too Human

The Wanderer and His ShadowHuman, All-Too-HumanHuman All Too Human
With the publication in 1878 of Human, All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion), a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer.
Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits (Menschliches, Allzumenschliches: Ein Buch für freie Geister) is a book by 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1878.

The Birth of Tragedy

Birth of TragedyThe Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Musicforgotten mysteries
In 1872, Nietzsche published his first book, The Birth of Tragedy.
The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

Malwida von Meysenbug

MalvidaMalvida Mesenbug
During this time in the circle of the Wagners, he met Malwida von Meysenbug and Hans von Bülow.
As well, she was a friend of Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner, and met the French writer Romain Rolland in Rome in 1890.

Franz Overbeck

Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck, a professor of theology who remained his friend throughout his life.
In Anglo-American discourse, he is perhaps best known in regard to his friendship with Friedrich Nietzsche; in German theological circles, Overbeck remains discussed for his own contributions.

Afrikan Spir

African SpirSpirA. Spir
With the publication in 1878 of Human, All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion), a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer. Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality, and Nietzsche's colleague the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him during this time.
His book Denken und Wirklichkeit (Thought and Reality) exerted a "lasting impact" on the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Existentialism

existentialistexistentialexistentialists
Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism, postmodernism and post-structuralism—as well as art, literature, psychology, politics and popular culture.
A primary cause of confusion is that Friedrich Nietzsche is an important philosopher in both fields.

Fascism

fascistfascistsFascist regime
Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism; 20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available.
The fin-de-siècle outlook was influenced by various intellectual developments, including Darwinian biology; Wagnerian aesthetics; Arthur de Gobineau's racialism; Gustave Le Bon's psychology; and the philosophies of Friedrich Nietzsche, Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Henri Bergson.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Also sprach ZarathustraZarathustraphilosophical novel of the same name
In responding most enthusiastically to Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra), Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts written between 1883 and 1885 and published between 1883 and 1891.