Frog galvanoscope

frog's leg galvanoscoperheoscopic frog
The frog galvanoscope was a sensitive electrical instrument used to detect voltage in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.wikipedia
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Galvanometer

tangent galvanometernull detectorgalvanoscope
In modern usage a galvanometer is a sensitive laboratory instrument for measuring current, not voltage.
André-Marie Ampère, who gave mathematical expression to Ørsted's discovery and named the instrument after the Italian electricity researcher Luigi Galvani, who in 1791 discovered the principle of the frog galvanoscope – that electric current would make the legs of a dead frog jerk.

Carlo Matteucci

Senator Matteucci
The instrument was invented by Luigi Galvani and improved by Carlo Matteucci.
Thus, Mateucci was able to develop what he called a "rheoscopic frog", by using the cut nerve of a frog's leg and its attached muscle as a kind of sensitive electricity detector.

Frog battery

battery entirely out of biological material
Matteucci, in answer to Volta, and to show that metal contacts were not necessary, constructed a circuit entirely out of biological material, including a frog battery.
In the early days of electrical research, a common method of detecting electric current was by means of a frog's leg galvanoscope.

Golding Bird

Yet Golding Bird could still write in 1848 that "the irritable muscles of a frog's legs were no less than 56,000 times more delicate a test of electricity than the most sensitive condensing electrometer."
A supply of frogs was usually on hand, as they were used in the frog galvanoscope.

Voltage

potential differenceVvoltages
The frog galvanoscope was a sensitive electrical instrument used to detect voltage in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Luigi Galvani

GalvaniGalvani, LuigiAloysius Galvani
The instrument was invented by Luigi Galvani and improved by Carlo Matteucci. Luigi Galvani, a lecturer at the University of Bologna, was researching the nervous system of frogs from around 1780.

Alessandro Volta

VoltaVolta, AlessandroAllessandro Volta
The frog galvanoscope, and other experiments with frogs played a part in the dispute between Galvani and Alessandro Volta over the nature of electricity. Alessandro Volta opposed this theory, believing that the electricity that Galvani and other proponents were witnessing was due to metal contact electrification in the circuit.

Electromechanics

electromechanicalelectro-mechanicalelectromechanical engineering
The instrument is extremely sensitive and continued to be used well into the nineteenth century, even after electromechanical meters came into use.

Ammeter

microammetermoving coil meterampere-meter
Everyday current meters for use in the field are called ammeters.

Electrometer

capillary electrometerelectrographelectrometers
A similar distinction can be made between electroscopes, electrometers, and voltmeters for voltage measurements.

Voltmeter

Digital voltmetervolt metervoltmeters
A similar distinction can be made between electroscopes, electrometers, and voltmeters for voltage measurements.

Marcello Malpighi

MalpighiMalpighi, Marcello
Marcello Malpighi, for instance, used frogs in his study of lungs in the seventeenth century.

Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani

Leopoldo CaldaniMarc Antonio Caldani
Also in the seventeenth century, Leopoldo Caldani and Felice Fontana subjected frogs to electric shocks to test Albrecht von Haller's irritability theory.

Felice Fontana

Fontana
Also in the seventeenth century, Leopoldo Caldani and Felice Fontana subjected frogs to electric shocks to test Albrecht von Haller's irritability theory.

Albrecht von Haller

HallerAlbert HallerHaller, Albert
Also in the seventeenth century, Leopoldo Caldani and Felice Fontana subjected frogs to electric shocks to test Albrecht von Haller's irritability theory.

Hallerian physiology

Hallerian Theoryirritability theoryirritability' hypothesis
Also in the seventeenth century, Leopoldo Caldani and Felice Fontana subjected frogs to electric shocks to test Albrecht von Haller's irritability theory.

University of Bologna

BolognaUniversità di Bolognathe college
Luigi Galvani, a lecturer at the University of Bologna, was researching the nervous system of frogs from around 1780.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
Luigi Galvani, a lecturer at the University of Bologna, was researching the nervous system of frogs from around 1780.

Opiate

opiatesOpiate pathwayopioid
This research included the muscular response to opiates and static electricity, for which experiments the spinal cord and rear legs of a frog were dissected out together and the skin removed.

Static electricity

staticstatic chargestatic electric
This research included the muscular response to opiates and static electricity, for which experiments the spinal cord and rear legs of a frog were dissected out together and the skin removed.

Electrostatic generator

electrostatic machineinfluence machinefriction machine
An electric machine discharged just at the moment one of Galvani's assistants touched the crural nerve of a dissected frog with a scalpel.

Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert

AlibertJean-Louis AlibertBaron Jean-Louis Alibert
This story originates with Jean-Louis Alibert and, according to Piccolino and Bresadola, was probably invented by him.

Giovanni Aldini

Galvani, and his nephew Giovanni Aldini, used the frog galvanoscope in their electrical experiments.

Vitalism

vitalistvital forcevitalistic
Galvani used the frog galvanoscope to investigate and promote the theory of animal electricity, that is, that there was a vital life force in living things that manifested itself as a new kind of electricity.

Contact electrification

contact tensioncontact potentialcontact electricity
Alessandro Volta opposed this theory, believing that the electricity that Galvani and other proponents were witnessing was due to metal contact electrification in the circuit.