Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel typechemicalcombustible mixtureenergygasOther conventional sourcessolid fuels
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.wikipedia
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Combustion

burningignitionincomplete combustion
Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating, usually released through combustion. With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

Kerosene

paraffinparaffin oilkerosine
He described the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets).
It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesBattery (electricity)
Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).
Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline.

Distillation

distillerydistilleddistilling
Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.

Kerosene lamp

paraffin lampkerosene lampskerosene lantern
Rāzi also gave the first description of a kerosene lamp using crude mineral oil, referring to it as the "naffatah".
A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene as a fuel.

Wood

heartwoodwoodensapwood
Solid fuels include wood, charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood (see wood pellets), corn, wheat, rye and other grains.
Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons, furniture and paper.

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
It is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

Oil shale

bituminous shaleoil-shaleoil shales
Kerosene was also produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was then distilled.
Oil shale, an organic-rich sedimentary rock, belongs to the group of sapropel fuels.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

Fuel gas

gasfittergasgaseous fuel
Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that under ordinary conditions are gaseous.

Peat

turfpeat cuttingpeat extraction
Solid fuels include wood, charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood (see wood pellets), corn, wheat, rye and other grains.
Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can only exist as a liquid at very low temperatures (regardless of pressure), which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications.
The relative abundance of methane on Earth makes it an attractive fuel, although capturing and storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state under normal conditions for temperature and pressure.

Propane

propane gaspropane tankliquid propane
LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are easily compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions.
A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel.

Solid-propellant rocket

solid-fuel rocketSolidsolid rocket
Solid-fuel rocket technology also uses solid fuel (see solid propellants).
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).

Fossil fuel

fossil fuelsoil and gasOil & Gas
Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

Mechanical energy

mechanicalconservation of mechanical energyenergy
The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine.

Briquette

briquettesbriquettingCharcoal briquette
In Ireland, peat briquettes are used as smokeless fuel.
A briquette (also spelled briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust or other combustible biomass material (e.g. charcoal, sawdust, wood chips, peat, or paper) used for fuel and kindling to start a fire.

Coal

coal seamcoal industrycoal-fired
Solid fuels include wood, charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood (see wood pellets), corn, wheat, rye and other grains.
Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

Coke (fuel)

cokecoking coalcoke oven
It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century.
Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

HVACheatingclimate control
Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating, usually released through combustion.
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels, liquids, and gases.

Chemical energy

chemicalenergychemical energies
With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept
Another useful term is the heat of combustion, which is the energy mostly of the weak double bonds of molecular oxygen released due to a combustion reaction and often applied in the study of fuels.

Liquefied petroleum gas

LPGliquid petroleum gasliquified petroleum gas
LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are easily compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

Energy density

energy densitiesEnergies per unit massenergy
Wood has an energy density of 10–20 MJ/kg.
In energy storage applications the energy density relates the energy in an energy store to the volume of the storage facility, e.g. the fuel tank.

Renewable energy

renewablesrenewable energiesrenewable
Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols.
Biofuels provided 3% of the world's transport fuel in 2017.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Recently biofuels have been developed for use in automotive transport (for example Bioethanol and Biodiesel), but there is widespread public debate about how carbon efficient these fuels are.
The largest single use of ethanol is as an engine fuel and fuel additive.