Fula language

FulaFulfuldeFulaniPulaarAdamawa FulfuldefulFulani languageFulfulde languageFula languagesFulah
Fula, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a Senegambian language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.wikipedia
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Wolof language

WolofwolClassical Wolof
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula, it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family.

Niger–Congo languages

Niger–CongoNiger-CongoNiger–Congo language family
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
The most widely spoken Niger–Congo languages by number of native speakers are Yoruba, Igbo, Fula and Shona.

Fula people

FulaniFulaFulbe
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.
As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language, their history and their culture.

Serer language

SererSerer-Sine languageSerer proper
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani.

Atlantic languages

AtlanticWest AtlanticAtlantic language
More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo.
The Atlantic languages are spoken along the Atlantic coast from Senegal to Liberia, though transhumant Fula speakers have spread eastward and are found in large numbers across the Sahel, from Senegal to Nigeria, Cameroon and Sudan.

Consonant mutation

mutationmutatedinitial consonant mutation
Another feature of the language is initial consonant mutation between singular and plural forms of nouns and of verbs (except in Pular, no consonant mutation exists in verbs, only in nouns).
Initial consonant mutation is also found in Indonesian or Malay, in Southern Paiute and in several West African languages such as Fula.

Senegambian languages

SenegambianSenegambian languageTenda
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages. Fula, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a Senegambian language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
There are perhaps 13 million speakers of the various varieties of Fula, and over a million speakers of Serer.

Mali

Republic of MaliMalianMLI
Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples.

Voice (grammar)

voicegrammatical voicevoices
Verbs in Fula are usually classed in three voices: active, middle, and passive.
Some languages (such as Albanian, Bengali, Fula, Tamil, Sanskrit, Icelandic, Swedish, Biblical Hebrew and Ancient Greek) have a middle voice, which is a set of inflections or constructions which is to some extent different from both the active and passive voices.

Clusivity

inclusiveinclusive and exclusiveinclusive and exclusive we
Fula has inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns.
Some African languages also make this distinction, such as the Fula language.

Burkina Faso

BurkinabéBurkino FasoBurkina
Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
The "bè" suffix added onto "Burkina" to form the demonym "Burkinabè" comes from the Fula language and means "men or women".

Nigeria

Federal Republic of NigeriaNigerianNGA
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley. Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo, Yoruba, Ijaw, Fulfulde, and Edo.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
Most languages of Sub-Saharan Africa are members of the Niger-Congo family, which is predominantly tonal; notable exceptions are Swahili (in the southeast), most languages spoken in the Senegambia (among them Wolof, Serer and Cangin languages), and Fulani.

Noun class

noun classesnoun-classnoun-class system
The Fula or Fulfulde language is characterized by a robust noun class system, with 24 to 26 noun classes being common across the Fulfulde dialects.
The Fula language has about 26 noun classes (exact number varies slightly by dialect).

Guinea

Republic of GuineaGuineanGuinea-Conakry
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley. Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
Other significant languages spoken are Pular (Fulfulde or Fulani), Maninka (Malinke), Susu, Kissi, Kpelle, and Loma.

Ɓ

B with hook
a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or y, '
It is used to spell that sound in various languages, notably Fula and Hausa.

Mauritania

Islamic Republic of MauritaniaMauritaneanMauritanian
Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
Pulaar, Soninke and Wolof also serve as national languages.

Senegambia Confederation

SenegambiaSenegambian ConfederationSénégambia Confederation
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.

C

C# 5 change of to other languages
a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or y, ' The letters c, j, and r, respectively represent the sounds [], [], and [].
Yup'ik, Indonesian, Malay, and a number of African languages such as Hausa, Fula, and Manding share the soft Italian value of.

Cameroon

Republic of CameroonCameroonianCMR
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley. Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea BissauBissau-GuineanRepublic of Guinea-Bissau
Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African languages unique to each ethnicity: Fula (16%), Balanta (14%), Mandinka (7%), Manjak (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%), Bijagó (0.3%), and Nalu (0.1%), which form the ethnic African languages spoken by the population.

Ɗ

a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or y, '
It is used with the same value in the orthographies of various languages, notably some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, also in Sindhi and used in Shona from 1931-1955.

List of Latin-script digraphs

ngrrnj
a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or y, '
In the orthography used in Guinea before 1985, was used in Pular (a Fula language) for the voiced bilabial implosive, whereas in Xhosa, Zulu, and Shona, represents the implosive and represents the plosive.

The Gambia

GambiaGambianRepublic of the Gambia
Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.
Other languages are Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, Serer, Krio, Jola and other indigenous vernaculars.

Ƴ

a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or y, '
It is used in some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, to represent a palatalized glottal stop,.