Fula language

FulaFulaniFulfuldePulaarfulAdamawa FulfuldeFulahPularAdamawafl
Fula, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.wikipedia
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Wolof language

WolofwolClassical Wolof
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula, it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family.

Niger–Congo languages

Niger–CongoNiger-CongoNiger–Congo language family
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
The most widely spoken Niger–Congo languages by number of native speakers are Yoruba, Igbo, Fula and Shona.

Fula people

FulaFulaniFulbe
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.
As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language and their Islamic religious affiliation, their history and their culture.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
Most languages of Sub-Saharan Africa are members of the Niger-Congo family, which is predominantly tonal; notable exceptions are Swahili (in the southeast), most languages spoken in the Senegambia (among them Wolof, Serer and Cangin languages), and Fulani.

Serer language

SererSerer-Sine languageSerer proper
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani.

Atlantic languages

AtlanticWest AtlanticAtlantic language
More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo.
The Atlantic languages are spoken along the Atlantic coast from Senegal to Liberia, though transhumant Fula speakers have spread eastward and are found in large numbers across the Sahel, from Senegal to Nigeria, Cameroon and Sudan.

Consonant mutation

mutationmutatedinitial consonant mutation
Another feature of the language is initial consonant mutation between singular and plural forms of nouns and of verbs (except in Pular, there is no consonant mutation in verbs, only in nouns).
Initial consonant mutation is also found in Indonesian or Malay, in Southern Paiute and in several West African languages such as Fula.

Senegambian languages

SenegambianTendaSenegambian branch
Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages.
There are perhaps 13 million speakers of the various varieties of Fula, and over a million speakers of Serer.

Voice (grammar)

voicevoicesmiddle voice
Verbs in Fula are usually classed in 3 voices: active, middle, and passive.
Some languages (such as Albanian, Bengali, Fula, Tamil, Sanskrit, Icelandic, Swedish, Biblical Hebrew and Ancient Greek) have a middle voice, which is a set of inflections or constructions which is to some extent different from both the active and passive voices.

Clusivity

inclusiveinclusive and exclusiveinclusive and exclusive we
Fula has inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns.
Some African languages also make this distinction, such as the Fula language.

Nigeria

🇳🇬NigerianNGA
It is also spoken as a second language by various peoples in the region, such as the Kirdi of northern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria.
The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo, Yoruba and Fulfulde; Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily in Borno and Yobe State, is part of the Nilo-Saharan family; and Hausa is an Afroasiatic language.

Ɓ

a, aa, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ, '
It is used to spell that sound in various languages, notably Fula and Hausa.

Noun class

noun classesnoun-classclass
The Fula or Fulfulde language is characterized by a robust noun class system, with 24 to 26 noun classes being common across the Fulfulde dialects (Arnett 1975: 5). Noun classes in Fula are abstract categories with some classes having semantic attributes that characterize a subset of that class’ members, and others being marked by a membership too diverse to warrant any semantic categorization of the class’ members (Paradis 1992: 25).
The Fula language has about 26 noun classes (exact number varies slightly by dialect).

Guinea

🇬🇳Republic of GuineaGuinean
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.
Other significant languages spoken are Pular (Fulfulde or Fulani), Maninka (Malinke), Susu, Kissi, Kpelle, and Loma.

Ɗ

a, aa, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ, '
It is used with the same value in the orthographies of various languages, notably some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, also in Sindhi and used in Shona from 1931-1955.

Senegambia Confederation

SenegambiaSenegambia regionSenegambian
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.

Cameroon

🇨🇲CameroonianCMR
It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley.

List of Latin-script digraphs

ngnjrr
a, aa, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ, '
In the orthography used in Guinea before 1985, was used in Pular (a Fula language) for the voiced bilabial implosive, whereas in Xhosa, Zulu, and Shona, represents the implosive and represents the plosive.

Ɲ

a, aa, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ, '
The upper and lower case are used in the orthographies of some African languages (e.g. Bambara and Fula in Mali).

Ƴ

a, aa, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ, '
It is used in some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, to represent a palatalized glottal stop,.

Pulaar language

PulaarfucFula (Pulaar)
Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east.

Pular language

Pularfuf
Pular is a Fula language spoken primarily by the Fula people of Fouta Djallon, Guinea.

Maasina Fulfulde

ffmFulfulde, Maasina
Maasina Fulfulde (or Maasinankoore in the language itself) is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by Fula people and associated groups in the Inner Niger Delta area traditionally known as Macina in the center of what is now the West African state of Mali.

Pular grammar

* Pular grammar (a presentation for one variety of Fula)
Pular grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the Pular language, one of the Fula languages of the Niger-Congo language family spoken in West Africa.

Ɠ

The two sounds c and j, may also be realized as affricate sounds [] and []. Short [[I|i]], e, o, u vowel sounds can be realized as []. In the Pular of Guinea an additional letter, ɠ [], is also part of the orthography, but it is also only used for loan words.
Because it occurs in the orthographies of some African languages, including some unofficial orthographies of Fula, it is included in the African reference alphabet.