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Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
Pesticides can be classified by target organism (e.g., herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and pediculicides – see table), chemical structure (e.g., organic, inorganic, synthetic, or biological (biopesticide), although the distinction can sometimes blur), and physical state (e.g. gaseous (fumigant)).

Pest control

exterminatorpest managementexterminators
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
Fumigation is the treatment of a structure to kill pests such as wood-boring beetles by sealing it or surrounding it with an airtight cover such as a tent, and fogging with liquid insecticide for an extended period, typically of 24–72 hours.

Bromomethane

methyl bromidemethylbromidemethylene bromide
Methyl bromide was among the most widely used fumigants until its production and use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion.
97% of this estimate was used for fumigation purposes, whilst 3% was used for the manufacture of other products.

1,3-Dichloropropene

1,3-DichloropropyleneDCPdichloropropene
1,3-dichloropropene
It is used mainly in farming as a pesticide, specifically as a preplant fumigant and nematicide.

Dazomet

dazomet (methyl isothiocyanate precursor)
Dazomet is a common soil fumigant that acts as a herbicide, fungicide, and nematicide.

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

DBCPdibromochloropropaneNemagon
DBCP
It is a soil fumigant formerly used in American agriculture.

Methyl isothiocyanate

methylisothiocyanate
dazomet (methyl isothiocyanate precursor)
Solutions of MITC are used in agriculture as soil fumigants, mainly for protection against fungi and nematodes.

Chloropicrin

chlorpicrintrichloronitromethaneflypaper
chloropicrin
In agriculture, chloropicrin is injected into soil prior to planting a crop in order to fumigate soil.

Phosphine

phosphinesPH 3 tertiary phosphine
phosphine
Because the previously popular fumigant methyl bromide has been phased out in some countries under the Montreal Protocol, phosphine is the only widely used, cost-effective, rapidly acting fumigant that does not leave residues on the stored product.

Sulfuryl fluoride

sulfuryl difluorideSO 2 F 2
sulfuryl fluoride
Originally developed by the Dow Chemical Company, sulfuryl fluoride is in widespread use as a structural fumigant insecticide to control drywood termites, particularly in warm-weather portions of the southwestern and southeastern United States and in Hawaii.

Introduced species

introducedexotic speciesintroduction
It is used to control pests in buildings (structural fumigation), soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms.

Woodboring beetle

borerswood-boringwood-boring beetle
This method also affects the structure itself, affecting pests that inhabit the physical structure, such as woodborers and drywood termites.

Termite

termiteswhite antswhite ant
This method also affects the structure itself, affecting pests that inhabit the physical structure, such as woodborers and drywood termites.

Infestation

infestationsinfestbroods
Fumigation generally involves the following phases: First the area intended to be fumigated is usually covered to create a sealed environment; next the fumigant is released into the space to be fumigated; then, the space is held for a set period while the fumigant gas percolates through the space and acts on and kills any infestation in the product, next the space is ventilated so that the poisonous gases are allowed to escape from the space, and render it safe for humans to enter.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Fumigation generally involves the following phases: First the area intended to be fumigated is usually covered to create a sealed environment; next the fumigant is released into the space to be fumigated; then, the space is held for a set period while the fumigant gas percolates through the space and acts on and kills any infestation in the product, next the space is ventilated so that the poisonous gases are allowed to escape from the space, and render it safe for humans to enter.

Montreal Protocol

Ozone Layer ProtectionMontreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone LayerKigali amendment to the Montreal Protocal
Methyl bromide was among the most widely used fumigants until its production and use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion.

Ozone depletion

ozone holeozone layer depletionozone-depleting
Methyl bromide was among the most widely used fumigants until its production and use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion.

Methyl isocyanate

methyl isocyanate (MIC)MIC
methyl isocyanate

Hazard

hazardoushazardshealth hazard
Fumigation is a hazardous operation.

Certification

certifiedcertificatecertifications
Generally it is a legal requirement that the operator who carries out the fumigation operation holds official certification to perform the fumigation as the chemicals used are toxic to most forms of life, including humans.

Lazaretto

lazaretlazarettelazzaretto
In some lazarets, postal items were also disinfected, usually by fumigation.