Functional constipation

chronic idiopathic constipationchronic constipation with no known cause
Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause.wikipedia
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Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause.
Primary or functional constipation is defined by ongoing symptoms for greater than six months not due to an underlying cause such as medication side effects or an underlying medical condition.

Linaclotide

Linzess
Treatment options appear similar and include prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, tegaserod, velusetrag, elobixibat, bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate, and most recently, plecanatide.
Linaclotide (marketed under the trade name Linzess in the US and Mexico, and as Constella elsewhere) is a drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic constipation with no known cause.

Anismus

anal sphincter dyssynergia
Anismus
Where anismus causes constipation, it is an example of functional constipation.

Functional symptom

functional
Functional symptom
Another specific example is functional constipation, which may have psychological or psychiatric causes.

Plecanatide

Trulance
Treatment options appear similar and include prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, tegaserod, velusetrag, elobixibat, bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate, and most recently, plecanatide.
Plecanatide (brand name Trulance), is a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

Relamorelin

Relamorelin (INN, USAN) (developmental code names RM-131, BIM-28131, BIM-28163) is a synthetic peptide, centrally penetrant, selective agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) which is under development by Allergan pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis, chronic idiopathic constipation, and anorexia nervosa.

Forest Laboratories

ForestForest Laboratories EuropeForest Laboratories, Inc.
Linzess (linaclotide) for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation

CIC

Chronic idiopathic constipation, constipation that does not have a physical or physiological cause

Gut flora

gut microbiotaintestinal floragut bacteria
There is some evidence that treatment with some probiotic strains of bacteria may be effective in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation.

Ironwood Pharmaceuticals

IronwoodMicrobia
Linaclotide (Linzess in the US and Mexico, and as Constella elsewhere), a drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic constipation with no known cause, was approved in the US and Europe in 2012.

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologic
It may have a neurological, psychological or psychosomatic cause.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
It may have a neurological, psychological or psychosomatic cause.

Psychosomatic medicine

psychosomaticpsychosomatic disorderspower of suggestion
It may have a neurological, psychological or psychosomatic cause. Deeper psychosomatic disorders which sometimes affect digestion and the absorption of water in the colon

Defecation

defecatedefecatingbowel movement
A person with functional constipation may be healthy, yet has difficulty defecating.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
Chronic idiopathic constipation is similar to constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C); however, people with CIC do not have other symptoms of IBS, such as abdominal pain.

External anal sphincter

anal sphincteranal sphincter musclesexternal
Other inability or unwillingness to control the external anal sphincter, which normally is under voluntary control

Volition (psychology)

volitionvolitionalwill
Other inability or unwillingness to control the external anal sphincter, which normally is under voluntary control

Internal anal sphincter

internalanal sphincterSphincter ani internus
Nervous reactions, including prolonged and/or chronic stress and anxiety, that close the internal anal sphincter, a muscle that is not under voluntary control

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Nervous reactions, including prolonged and/or chronic stress and anxiety, that close the internal anal sphincter, a muscle that is not under voluntary control

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
Deeper psychosomatic disorders which sometimes affect digestion and the absorption of water in the colon

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
Deeper psychosomatic disorders which sometimes affect digestion and the absorption of water in the colon

Water

H 2 Oliquid wateraqueous
Deeper psychosomatic disorders which sometimes affect digestion and the absorption of water in the colon