Functional group

groupfunctional groupsmoietygroupsringchemical groupfunctionalitymoietiesfunctionalized functional groups
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.wikipedia
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Ligand

ligandsligand exchangebidentate ligand
Functional groups binding to a central atom in a coordination complex are called ligands.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

Substituent

substitutedsubstitutionsubstituents
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The terms substituent and functional group, as well as other ones (e.g. side chain, pendant group) are used almost interchangeably to describe branches from a parent structure, though certain distinctions are made in the context of polymer chemistry.

Moiety (chemistry)

moietymoietiesgroup
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The term moiety should be reserved to describe the larger characteristic parts of molecules and not used to describe smaller functional groups, which are made up of atoms that participate in similar chemical reactions in most molecules that contain them.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
In the formulas, the symbols R and R' usually denote an attached hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon side chain of any length, but may sometimes refer to any group of atoms.
Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls.

Alkane

alkanesparaffinparaffins
Combining the names of functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes generates what is termed a systematic nomenclature for naming organic compounds.
They can be viewed as molecular trees upon which can be hung the more active/reactive functional groups of biological molecules.

Alkene

olefinalkenesolefins
Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula n 2n.

Alpha and beta carbon

alpha carbonαα-carbon
In traditional nomenclature, the first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon; the second, beta carbon, the third, gamma carbon, etc. If there is another functional group at a carbon, it may be named with the Greek letter, e.g., the gamma-amine in gamma-aminobutyric acid is on the third carbon of the carbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.

Alkyne

alkynesalkynylterminal alkyne
The simplest acyclic alkynes with only one triple bond and no other functional groups form a homologous series with the general chemical formula n 2n−2.

Ethane

C 2 H 6 dimethyldicarbon hexahydride
Related compounds may be formed by replacing a hydrogen atom with another functional group; the ethane moiety is called an ethyl group.

Phenyl group

phenylphenyl ringPh
Phenyl groups are closely related to benzene and can be viewed as a benzene ring, minus a hydrogen, which may be replaced by some other element or compound to serve as a functional group.

Alcohol

alcoholssecondary alcoholtertiary alcohol
In chemistry, alcohols are organic compounds that carry at least one hydroxyl functional group (C–OH) bound to their aliphatic substructure.

Ketone

ketonesketoketo group
In chemistry, a ketone is a functional group with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents.

Carbonyl group

carbonylcarbonyl compoundcarbonyls
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O.

Aldehyde

aldehydesformylformyl group
An aldehyde is a compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

Organic chemistry

organicorganic chemistorganic chemical
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present in the solution.

Carbonate ester

carbonatecyclic carbonatecarbonate group
This functional group consists of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups.

Acyl halide

acyl halidesacyl fluorideacid halide
If the acid is a carboxylic acid, the compound contains a –COX functional group, which consists of a carbonyl group singly bonded to a halogen atom.

Methoxy group

methoxyOCH 3 methoxyl
A methoxy group is the functional group consisting of a methyl group bound to oxygen.

Benzene

benzene ringbenzolbenzene rings
Many important chemical compounds are derived from benzene by replacing one or more of its hydrogen atoms with another functional group.

Organic peroxide

peroxidehydroperoxidesendoperoxide
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).

Ether

etherspolyetheraryl ether
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

Acetal

ketalacetalsacetalisation
An acetal is a functional group with the connectivity R 2 C(OR') 2 ).

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
In traditional nomenclature, the first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon; the second, beta carbon, the third, gamma carbon, etc. If there is another functional group at a carbon, it may be named with the Greek letter, e.g., the gamma-amine in gamma-aminobutyric acid is on the third carbon of the carbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group.
These collections, known as functional groups, confer common reactivity patterns and allow for the systematic study and categorization of organic compounds.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
A common symbol for acetic acid is AcOH, where Ac is the pseudoelement symbol representing the acetyl group −C(=O)−; the conjugate base, acetate, is thus represented as AcO − .

Orthoester

orthoestersOrthoformatecyclic orthoester
In organic chemistry, an orthoester is a functional group containing three alkoxy groups attached to one carbon atom, i.e. with the general formula RC(OR′) 3.